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Background: A number of processes regulating the thrombolytic balance are impaired in diabetic patients as a result of dysfunction of endothelial cells leading to a hypercoagulative state. Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is an important marker of endothelial dysfunction. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen (PAI-1-Ag), the major physiological inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), is mainly produced by endothelium. The aim of this study is to measure plasma levels of von Willebrand factor, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and to correlate with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c).
Study Design: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 30 diagnosed type 2 DM patients who were about to start treatment.
Place and Duration of Study: Medical outpatient (MOP) clinic of Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital (ESUTTH), between January and December 2016.
Methodology: We included 30 patients (13 men, 17 women; age range 40-80 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood samples were drawn from the patients before they commenced treatment, six months into the treatment and at twelve months of the treatment. Blood samples were also drawn from 25 age matched non diabetic patients. Plasma von Willebrand factor and Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels were determined by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels were also evaluated along with them.
Results: This study was conducted on 30 type 2 DM patients consisting of 13 males and 17 females. At treatment naïve, mean levels of vWF were significantly increased (45.48 +/- 6.46) in male type 2 Diabetic patients compared to the control (20.45 +/- 0.26). Six months into treatment mean levels of vWF were significantly increased (48.18 +/- 4.99) in female type 2 Diabetic patients compared to the control (37.64 +/- 7.93). The plasma levels of vWF were significantly and positively correlated with HbA1c at six months into treatment in male type 2 DM patients. The plasma levels of vWF were also significantly and positively correlated with PAI-1 at six and twelve months into treatment in both genders.
Conclusion: There was strong significant positive correlation between plasma levels of vWF and PAI-1 in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.