Synergistic Pharmacological Effect of Leaf Extracts of Ficus exasperata and Telfeira occidentalis on Chloramphenicol - Induced Anaemia in Wistar Rats

Main Article Content

Nweje- Anyalowu Paul Chukwuemeka
Anyalogbu Ernest Anayochukwu Aniemeka
Idakwoji Precious Adejoh
Agatemor Uzuazokaro Mark-Maria
Uroko Robert Ikechukwu


Objective: This study was undertaken to validate the haematinic potentials of the aqueous leaf extracts of Ficus exasperata (FEAE) and Telfeira occidentalis (TOAE) administered separately and to establish a possible synergistic interaction when administered concurrently to chloramphenicol- induced anaemic rats.

Materials and Methods: Anaemia was induced by oral administration of chloramphenicol (50 mg/kg) for 2 weeks.  Five (5) non- anaemic rats and Twenty (20) anaemic rats were used in this study. The non – anaemic rats served as non- anaemic control and received 1ml dist. H2O. The 25 anaemic rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each (groups 2- 6). Group 2 served as anaemic control and received 1 ml dist. H2O, group 3 served as positive control (reference drug) and received ferrous gluconate (900 mg/kg) while groups 4- 6 received  FEAE (200 mg/kg), TOAE (200 mg/kg) and FEAE (100 mg/kg) + TOAE (100 mg/kg) respectively. Treatment was carried out once daily for 7 days after which the rats were bled for determination of PCV, Hb and WBC count.

Results: Chloramphenicol induced a significant decrease PVC and Hb indicating anaemia and also resulted to a significant increase in WBC count. Aqueous leaves extracts of Ficus exasperata and Telfeira occidentalis produced significant increase in PCV and Hb with a corresponding decrease in WBC after 7 days of oral administration to anaemic rats. The anti- anaemic effect observed with co-administration of the extracts was however, significantly more than either of the extract administered alone.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the extracts of Ficus exasperata and Telfeira occidentalis show synergistic effect when co-administered. This could be useful in the management of   anaemia.

Synergistic, pharmacological, Telfeira occidentalis, chloramphenicol, anaemia

Article Details

How to Cite
Chukwuemeka, N.- A. P., Aniemeka, A. E. A., Adejoh, I. P., Mark-Maria, A. U., & Ikechukwu, U. R. (2019). Synergistic Pharmacological Effect of Leaf Extracts of Ficus exasperata and Telfeira occidentalis on Chloramphenicol - Induced Anaemia in Wistar Rats. International Blood Research & Reviews, 9(3), 1-7.
Original Research Article


Dacie IV, Lewis SM. Practical haematology. 8th edn. Churchill Livingstone, London. 1994;49-59.

Okochi YI, Okpuzor J, Alli LA. Comparison of an African herbal formula with com-mercially available haematinics. Afr. J. Bio-technol. 2003;2(8):237-240.

Diallo A, Gbeassor M, Vovor A, Eklu-Gadegbeku K, Aklikokou K, Agbonon A, Abena AA, de Souza C, Akpagana K. Effect of Tectona grandis on phenyl-hydrazine induced anaemia in rats. Fitoterapia. 2008;79:332-336.

Alada ARA. The hematological effect of Telfelria occidentalis diet preparation. Afr. J. Biomed Res. 2000;3(3):185-186.

Dina OA, Adedapo AA, Oyinloye OP, Saba AB. Effect of Telfairia occidentalis extract on experimentally induced anaemia in domestic rabbits. Afr. J. Biomed Res. 2006;3:181-183.

Hallan P. Population dynamics of Fig wasps from Ficus exasperata Vahl. Proc. Kon, ned. Akadwe ser. C. 1999;7(87):365-375.

Abbiw T. Study of tropical shrubs and plants. J Biog. 1990;23:591-602.

Bafor EE, Nwiko M, Omogbai EK, Ozolua RI, Nworgu ZA. Evaluation of the proposed inhibitory effect of the aqueous stem-bark extract of Ficus exasperata on uterine preparations in vitro. Int. J. Pharmacol. 2009;5:94-97.

Buniyamin AA, Eric KI, Fabian CA. Pharmacognosy and hypotensive evaluation of Ficus exasperata Vahl (Moraceae) leave. Acta Poloniae Pharm-Drug Res. 2007;64(6):543-546.

Odunbaku OA, Ilusanya OA, Akasoro KS. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Ficus exasperata on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus albus. Sci. Res. Essay. 2008;3(11):562-564.

Sonibare MO, Isiaka AO, Taruka MW, Williams NS, Soladoye M, Emmanuel O. Constituents of Ficus exasperata leaves. Natural product communications 2006;23-26.

Ijeh II, Agbor C. Body and organ weight changes following administration of aqeous extracts of Ficus exasperata Vahl on white albino rats. J anim Vet Adv. 2006;5(4): 277-279.

Kayode AAA, Kayode OT. Some medicinal values of Telfairia occidentalis: A review. Am J Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;1:30-8.

Badifu GIO, Ogunsina AO. Chemical composition of Kernels from some species of cucurbitaceae grown in Nigeria. Plant Foods Human Nutr. 1991;41:35-44.

Oyewole OA, Abalaka ME. Antimicrobial activities of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) leaf extract against selected intestinal pathogens. J Health Sci. 2012; 2(2):1-4.

Alada ARA. The haematological effects of Telfairia occidentalis diets preparation. Afr J Biomed. 2000;3:185-6.

Dina OA, Adedapo AA, Oyinloye OP. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis extract on experimentally induced anaemia in domestic. Afr J Biomed Res. 2003;3:181-3.

Iwu MW. Traditional Igbo Medicine. Institute of African Studies University of Nigeria Nsukka; 1983.

Gbile ZO, Sofowora A. Ethnobotany, taxonomy and conservation of medicinal plants. In: The state of medicinal plants research in Nigeria. University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan, Nigeria; 1986.

Eseyin OA, Igboasoiyi AC, Oforah E. Studies of the effects of alcohol extract of Telfairia occidentalis on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Global J Pure Appl Sci. 2005; 11:85-7.

Oboh G, Nwanna EE, Elusiyan CA. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) leaf extracts. J Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006;1:167-75.

Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Archives of Toxicology. 1983;54:275-287.

Baker FJ, Silverton RE, Pallister CJ. Introduction to medical laboratory technology. 7th ed. Elvis Publishers. 1998; 356-360.

Kawaljit Kaur BD. Arya Girls College, Jalandar Cantt, Punjab. European Journal of Zoological Research. 2014;3(1):32-36.

Osafanme IL, Sheneni VD, Nweje-Anyalowu PC, Oguche M, Idakwoji PA. Haematinic effects of aqueous extract of Lophira lanceolata leaves in phenylhydrazine-induced anaemia in wistar rats. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry. 2019;4(1):1-6.

Saeed MA, Sabir AW. Effects of Fagonia cretica constituents on various haemato-logical parameters in rabbits. J Ethno-pharmacol. 2003;85:195-200.

Adebajo AC, Ayoola OF, Iwalewa EO, Akindahunsi AA, Omisore NO, Adewunmi CO, Adenowo TK. Anti-trichomonal, biochemical and toxicological activities of methanolic extract and some carbazole alkaloids isolated from the leaves of Murraya koenigii growing in Nigeria. Phytomedicine. 2006;13:246-254.

Bumah VV, Essien EU, Agbedahunsi JM, Ekah OU. Effects of Khaya grandifoliola (Meliaceae) on some biochemical parameters in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;102:446-449.