Serum Electrolytes and Red Blood Cell Membrane Potential of Hypertensive Patients

Main Article Content

Nwadike Constance
Nosiri Chidi Ijeoma
Eze Adindu
Onyeabo Chimaraoke
Ezekwe Ahamefula Sunday
Onyejiekwe Catherine

Abstract

Serum electrolyte and red blood cell membrane potential of hypertensive patients in Owerri metropolis were investigated. A total of 50 volunteer subjects were used for the study.  Thirty (30) of the volunteer subjects were hypertensive subjects and were used as test subjects; while the remaining 20 subjects were healthy subjects with normal blood pressure used as normentensive subjects (control). Results observed showed increased red blood cell (RBC) K+ and Cl- in hypertension subjects against normentensive subjects. Apart from K+ which reduced significantly (p<0.05), other electrolyte ions of the serum increased significantly (p<0.05) in hypertensive subjects against normentensive subjects. However, Na+ and Cl- membrane potential was not significantly (p>0.05) altered in hypertensive subjects against normotensive subjects while K+ was significantly (p<0.05) altered. The observed alterations in the parameters investigated in hypertensive subjects in the present study could be as a result of a host of derangements involving electrolyte metabolism, altered membrane transport and a possible increase in membrane fragility. This study has shown the serum electrolyte and red blood cell membrane potential of hypertensive patients in Owerri metropolis.

Keywords:
Electrolyte, hypertensive patients, membrane potential, red blood cell.

Article Details

How to Cite
Constance, N., Ijeoma, N., Adindu, E., Chimaraoke, O., Sunday, E., & Catherine, O. (2019). Serum Electrolytes and Red Blood Cell Membrane Potential of Hypertensive Patients. International Blood Research & Reviews, 10(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/ibrr/2019/v10i130110
Section
Original Research Article

References

World Health Organization. A global brief on hypertension. Silent killer, global public health crisis, 2013. World Health Organization; 2013.
Available:http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/publications/global_brief_hypertension/en/
(Accessed April 2013)

Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005;365:217–223.

Global Health Observatory (GHO) data: NCD mortality and morbidity.
Available:mwww.who.int/gho/ncd/mortality_morbidity/en/.
(Accessed 20 September 2018)

National Heart Foundation of Australia. Guideline for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults–2016. Melbourne: National Herat Foundation of Australia; 2016.

Esler M. Sprint, or false start, toward a lower universal treated blood pressure target in hyprtension. Hypertension. 2016; 67:266–267.

Liu, L.S. Chinese guidelines for the management of hypertension. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2011;39:579–615.

Oparil S. Low sodium intake —cardiovascular health benefit or risk? N Engl J Med. 2014;371:677–679.

Ajumobi K. Hypertension prevalence in Nigeria is about 30–45% - Experts; 2017.
Available:http://www.businessdayonline.com/hypertension-prevalence-nigeria-30-45-experts/
(Accessed on 16/5/2018)

Onuoha FM, Egwim J. Hypertension amongst the diabetic patients assessing care in a primary care setting in South-Eastern, Nigeria. Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Studies. 2017;1(1):1-8.

Singer DR, Kite A. Management of hypertension in peripherial arterial disease: Does the choice of drugs mater? European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. 2008;35(6):701-708.

Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide Data. Lancet. 2005;365:217-223.

Ogah OS, Okpechi I, Chukwuonye II, Akinyemi JO, Onwubere BJ, Falase AO, Stewart S, Sliwa K. Blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and hypertension related complications in Nigerian. Africans: A review. World J Cardiol. 2012;4:327-340

Diwe KC, Enwere OO, Uwakwe KA, Duru CB, Chineke HN. Prevalence and awareness of hypertension and associated risk factors among bank workers in Owerri, Nigeria. International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. 2015;4(3):142-148.

Mensah GA, Janet BC, Wayne HG. The heart, kidney, and brain as target organs in hypertension. Cardiol Clin. 2002;20:225-247.

Ulasi II, Ijoma CK, Onwubere BJ, Arodiwe E, Onodugo O, Okafor C. High prevalence and low awareness of hypertension in a market population in Enugu, Nigeria. Int J Hypertens. 2011;869675.

Akinkugbe OO. Health behavior monitor among Nigerian adult population: A collaborative work of Nigerian Heart Foundation and Federal Ministry of Health and Social Services, Abuja supported by World Health Organization, Geneva; 2003.
Available: URL: http: //www.who.int/ chp/steps /2003 _STEPS _Report _Nigeria. pdf

Onwuchekwa AC, Chinenye S. Clinical profile of hypertension at a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2010;6:511-516.

Onwuchekwa AC, Asekomeh EG, Iyagba AM, Onung SI. Medical mortality in the accident and emergency unit of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Niger J Med. 2008;17:182-185.

Arodiwe EB, Ike SO, Nwokediuko SC. Case fatality among hypertension-related admissions in Enugu, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2009;12:153-156.

Mordecai PB. Hypertension. Editorial Bulletin. 1984;6(4):445-453.

Wiley JS, Clarke DA, Bonacquisto LA, Scarlett JD, Harrap SB, Doyle AE. Erythrocyte cation co-transport and counter transport in essential hypertension. Hypertension. 1984;6:360-368

Aderounmu AF, Salako LA Abnormal cation composition and transport in erythrocytes from hypertensive patients. Eur J Clin Invest. 1979;9:369-375.

Birks RI, Langlois S. Ouabain-insensitive net sodium influx in erythrocytes of normotensive and essential hypertensive humans. Proc R Soc Lond B. 1982;216: 53-69.

Giasuddin ASM, Adesanya CO, Isah HS. Serum electrolytes and calcium status in Nigerian patients with essential hypertension. Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences. 1991;4(3):253-256.

Walsh CR, Larson MG, Vasa RS, levy D. Serum potassium is not associated with blood pressure tracking in the Framingham Heart Study. Am J Hypertens. 2002;15: 130–136.

Kesteloot H, Joossens JV. Relationship of serum sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus with blood pressure. Belgian Interuniversity Research on Nutrition and Health. Hypertension. 1998;12:589–593.

Pikilidou MI, Lasaridis AN, Sarafidis PA, Tziolas IM, Zebekakis PE, Dombros NV, Giannoulis E. Blood pressure and serum potassium levels in hypertensive patients receiving or not receiving antihypertensive treatment. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2007;29: 563–573.

Rinner MD, Spliet-van Laar L, Kromhout D. Serum sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium and blood pressure in a Dutch population. J Hypertens. 1989;7:977–981.

Hu G, Xu X, Liang X, Yang X, Zhang J, Simayi Z, Chen Y. Associations of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and electrolyte levels with essential hypertension. Exp. Ther. Med. 2013;5(5):1439-1443.

Foringer JR, Norris C, Finkel KW. Evidence-Based Nephrology, Molony DA & Craig JC, Eds.; Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2008;Chapter 56:633–641.

Ike, SO. Prevalence of hypertension and its complications among medical admissions at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu (Study 2). Niger J Med. 2009;18:68-72.

Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, De Wardener HE, MacGregor GA. Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev. 2005;85:679-715.

Linsay M, Stefanie L, Sandosh P. The hidden hand of chloride in hypertension. Pflugers Arch-Eur J. Physiol. 2015;467-595.

Stojadinovic ND, et al. Alteration of erythrocyte membrane Na, K-ATpase in children with boarderline essenteial hypertension. Cell Biochem Fund. 1996; 14:79-87.