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Background: Increased morbidity and mortality rates have been reported among patients co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV).
Aims: To determine the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-infected anti-retroviral therapy (ART) naïve patients attending two Public Health Facilities in Osun State, Nigeria; as well as to determine the effect of HIV/HBV co-infections on CD4 count and some haematological parameters.
Study Design: This is a prospective, analytical and Institutional based study.
Place and Duration of Study: HIV Out-Patients Clinic, State Specialist Hospital Osogbo and State Hospital Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria, between February and August, 2015.
Methodology: A total of 321 blood samples were collected from 121 HIV HAART Naïve patients and 200 HIV negative patients, aged between 4 and 52 years. HIV antibodies were detected using 3 rapid diagnostic kits (Determine, Unigold and Stat Pak). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) was detected using Clinotech Diagnostic test strips. CD4+ cells were counted using Partec® Cyflow Counter (Germany); while Platelet Count and Haemoglobin concentration were determined using Sysmex auto-analyzer (Japan).
Results: The prevalence of HBV infection was found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) among HIV positive patients (16.5%) than in HIV negative patients (3.5%). HIV status was identified as a risk factor for acquiring HBV infection. There were no significant differences between the CD4 Count, Platelet Count and Haemoglobin Concentration of HIV/HBV co-infected and mono-infected group on the basis of age, except for gender. The mean CD4 Count of HIV/HBV co-infected males (327±200.64 Cells/µL) was found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than their mono-infected counterparts (274.5±81.33 Cells/µL), whereas, their Platelet Count and haemoglobin concentration did not differ significantly (P>0.05). Also, the mean CD4 cell count of co-infected females (408.4±331.28 Cell/µL) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of their male counterparts (327.6±81.33 Cell/µL). However, there were no significant differences in their mean platelet count and haemoglobin concentration.
Conclusion: HBV exist among HIV positive patients living in Osun State, Nigeria, with a prevalence rate of 16.5%. Although, no significant difference was observed in the Platelet count and Haemoglobin concentration of HIV/HBV co-infected when compared to those of HIV mono-infected patients, regular monitoring of their CD4 Count, Platelet Count and Haemoglobin Concentration is encouraged to prevent associated sequalea.