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Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is one of the most common enzyme defects affecting all races and particularly in malaria-endemic areas. This study aimed at determining G6PD deficiency, bilirubin and oxidative stress biomarkers in G6PD deficient neonates among neonates in UDUTH, Sokoto.
Methods: Samples of cord blood were collected at delivery, in the Labour Room, from 300 neonates made up of 131 (43.7%) males and 169 (56.3%) females. Methaemoglobin reduction method was used for the screening of G6PD deficiency; total bilirubin level was estimated using bilirubinometer, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using TAC Assay Kit, and malondialdehyde (MDA) using thiobarbituric acid method.
Results: Of the 300 neonates tested, a total of 90(30%) were G6PD-deficient while 210(70%) had normal G6PD status. Of the 90 G6PD-deficient neonates, 41(45.6%) were males and 49(54.4%) were females. The prevalence was 31.3% among male population and 29.0% among female population. The mean ± standard error of total bilirubin (mg/dL), TAC (uM CRE), and MDA (nmol/L) in G6PD-deficient and G6PD-normal neonates were 6.63 ± 0.12 and 6.11 ± 0.06, 364.34 + 18.76 and 390.99 + 24.18, 26.15 + 1.22 and 23.35 + 1.15 respectively. The total bilirubin was significantly higher (p<0.05) in G6PD-deficient neonate than in G6PD-normal neonates, both TAC and MDA values showed no significant difference between the G6PD deficient and G6PD normal neonates.
Conclusion: From this study, there is a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency among neonates in UDUTH, Sokoto. G6PD deficiency is a known cause of neonatal jaundice hence it is recommended G6PD screening be made routine for all neonates born in UDUTH, Sokoto.