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Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of blood storage using CPDA-1 on packed cell volume, methaemoglobin and oxyhaemoglobin in different ABO/Rhesus blood types donated by some residents of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Study Design: This is a comparative study aimed at evaluating the effect of storage on the levels of methaemoglobin, oxyhaemoglobin and packed cell volume using CPDA-1. A total of eight donors were recruited with each sample obtained from the eight (8) known blood groups A+,B+,O+,AB+, A-,B-,O-,AB- and analysis of samples were in triplicate. The donors were adult males with age ranging from 35-45 years and they were apparently healthy and free from transfusion transmissible infections. The different blood group samples were stored for 30 days and samples for analysis were collected at 5 days interval.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. All blood donors were residents of Port Harcourt. Blood donated was stored at Military Hospital Blood Bank, Port Harcourt, in a blood bag of 450 ml containing 63 ml of citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 (CPDA-1). The analysis was carried out at Rivers State University, Post Graduate Laboratory within March 1st to May 27th, 2019.
Methodology: A total of eight (8) different ABO/Rhesus blood types (A+,B+,AB+,O+,A-,B-,AB- and O-) were collected and stored using a blood bank refrigerator at temperature of 4°C. Day 0 was taken to be control and 5 days intervals in-between to day 30 acted as the test. Packed cell volume was estimated using micro-haematocrit method while oxyhaemoglobin and methaemoglobin levels were estimated spectrophotometrically as described by Evelyn and Malloy.
Results: The result showed a significant decrease in mean packed cell volume, oxyhaemoglobin and methaemoglobin levels compared to a higher mean of these parameters in the control; and these differences were statistically significant (p<0.05) across all blood groups under study. The decrease in values were as a result of haemolysis that occurs during storage.
Conclusion: Storage of blood irrespective of the blood group type using CPDA-1 for 30 days indicates that there are “storage lesions”. This is attributed to red cell haemolysis and ageing of red blood cells. In general, all blood types showed no significant difference in their haematological (packed cell volume, methaemoglobin, oxyhaemoglobin) characteristic deterioration or storage lesion based on blood type differences. It is therefore necessary to state that storage lesion characteristics are the same irrespective of the blood type, and that fresh blood be transfused, and if blood is stored, prolonged storage beyond 10 days should be avoided.
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