Main Article Content
ABO, Rhesus D and subgroups of ABO are highly immunogenic and are the common cause of antibody production in mismatched blood transfusions, haemolytic transfusion reaction and maternal alloimmunization. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of ABO, Rh D and subgroups of ABO among blood donors attending Specialist Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria. ABO, Rhesus D and subgroups of ABO antigen status of 176 blood donors with mean age of 30.44 ± 8.210 years attending Specialist Hospital Sokoto were determined using tile method for ABO and Rh D and conventional tube method for anti- A1, anti- H reagents for ABO subgroups respectively. Among the 176 subjects tested, blood group O+ was the most frequent group with 93 (52.8%), 39 (22.2%) were blood group B+, 37(21.0%) were blood group A+, 5 (2.8%) were blood group AB+, 2 (1.1%) were blood group O-. No data was obtained for A-, B- and AB- blood groups. Out of 37 A blood groups obtained, 31 (83.8%) had A1 antigens and 6 (16.2%) had A2 antigens. Out of the 5 AB blood groups, all had A1B antigens. The study also shows that there was statistically significant difference between blood group A and ethnic groups (Hausa, Fulani and Yoruba) (p<0.05). Blood group O was found to be the most frequent followed by B, A and AB except among Hausa which revealed a pattern of O> A> B> AB. ABO, subgroups shows majority had A1 followed by A2 and A1B respectively.
Elnour MA, Ali NY, Mohammed HA, Hummeda SA, Alshazally WA, Omer NA. Frequency of the A2-subgroup among blood group A and blood group AB among students of faculty of medicine and health sciences at Alimam Almahadi University, White Nile, Sudan. Hematology Transfusion International Journal. 2015; 1(4):12-22.
Mahapatra S, Mishra D, Sahoo D, Sahoo BB. Study of prevalence of A2, A2B along with major ABO blood groups to minimize the transfusion reactions. International Journal of Scientific Research (IJSR). 2016;5(3):189–190.
Chaudhari C N, Misra RN, Nagpal AK. Transfusion in blood group A2B with anti-A1 Recipient. MJAFI. 2008;64:371–372.
Sujata S, Giriyan A, Agrawal R, Bajpai N, Kumar N. A1 and A2 Sub-Types of Blood Group ‘A’: A Reflection of their Prevalence in North Karnataka Region. Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2017;11(5): 40–42.
Dean L. Blood groups and red cell antigens. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US). 2005; 11-63.
Mamman, AB. Sokoto State. In: A People United, a future assured (Survey of States); 2000.
Sokoto State Diary. Ministry of Information. Sokoto, Sokoto State. 2003;4-5.
National Population Commission. National Census Figures, Abuja, Nigeria. 2006; 206-210.
Charan J, Biswas T. How to calculate sample size for different study design in medical research. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2013;35(2):121-126.
Abubakar U, Musa M, Ndakotsu A, Ayatollah K, Ibrahim A. Distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood group systems among blood donors in Sokoto North-western Nigeria. Journal of applied Haematology. 2015;6(3):136-138.
Arthur W. ABO and Rhesus Blood Grouping principles and Result interpretation. Arthur, viewed 22 August, 2019; 2018.
Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practice for Tropical Countries. Part 2, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York. 2006;367-368.
Lorne Laboratories LTD. Lectin blood grouping reagents: Anti-A1 lectin for tube technique. Lower early, Great Britain, United Kingdom; 2018.
Erhabor O, Isaac Z, Saidu A, Ahmed HM, Abdulrahaman Y, Festus A, Ikhuenbor DB, Iwueke IP, Adias TC. The distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood groups among residents of Gusau, Zamfara State, North Western Nigeria. Journal of Medical and Health Sciences. 2013;4(2): 58-63.
Erhabor O, Adias TC, Jeremiah ZA, Hart ML. Abnormal hemoglobin variants, ABO, and Rhesus blood group distribution among students in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine International. 2010;2:6-12.
Jeremiah Z.A. Abnormal haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rhesus blood groups among student of African descent in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. African Health Science. 2006;6:177–181.
Worlledge S, Ogiemudia SE, Thomas CO, Ikoku BN, Luzzatto L. Blood group antigens and antibodies in Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine Parasitology. 1974; 68:249–264.
Falusi AG, Ademowo OG, Latunji CA, Okeke AC, Olatunji PO, Onyekwere TO, Jimmy EO, Raji Y, Hedo CC, Otukonyong EE. Distribution of ABO and RH genes in Nigeria. African Journal of Medical Sciences. 2000;29(1):23-26.
Omotade, OO, Adeyemo AA, Kayode CM, Falade SI, Ikpeme S. Gene frequencies of ABO and RH (D) blood group alleles in a healthy infant population in Ibadan, Nigeria. West African Journal of Medicine. 1999;18:294-297.
Cern T, Fey MF, Oppliger R. Prevalence of the Rhesus – negative phenotype in Caucasian patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). International Journal of Cancer. 2006;52:504–506.