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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in some haematological parameters in sickle cell anaemia subjects in Rivers State.
Study Design: This study is a cross-sectional observational study.
Place and Duration of Study: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, and the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, between the months of February and August, 2020.
Methodology: A total of four hundred and fifty (450) subjects with age range of 1-50 years were randomly selected. There are about 200 registered patients (adults and children alike) at the sickle cell clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, and the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, with an average of 4 new patients per month. The sample size was obtained using a prevalence of sickle cell anaemia of 2% and the sample size was calculated using Cochran sample size formula. Five milliliters (5ml) of venous blood sample was withdrawn from the peripheral vein in the upper limb of subjects using a standard venipuncture technique. The sample was rocked gently to mix and kept at room temperature and the haematological parameters were analyzed within 4 hours of samples collection. The haematological parameters: total white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Haematocrit, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red cell distribution width (RDW-CV), Platelet count (PLT), MPV, Neutrophils, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Eosinophils, and Basophils) were analyzed using Mindray BC-6800 auto Haematology analyzer system. Data management and statistical analyses were conducted using Statistical Analyses System SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA) and p values less than .05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: The results showed the mean comparison of haematological parameters in sickle cell anaemia and control subjects. The mean comparison of Haemoglobin F was significantly reduced statistically (p<.05) in vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) condition than steady state compared with the control group. There was increase trend of haematological parameters showing statistically significant difference across the subject conditions compared with the control. There were exceptions in few cases especially in lymphocytes which was not significant (p>.05) in the steady state and vaso-occlusive crisis compared with the control. Similarly, Neutrophils was not significant (p>.05) in the steady state and vaso-occlusive crisis compared with the control. Furthermore, Basophils was more significant (p<.05) in the steady state than in the vaso-occlusive crisis and control groups. Similarly, absolute eosinophil was less significant statistically (p<.05) in the steady state and vaso-occlusive crisis than in the control group.
Conclusion: This study has shown that there are changes in haemtological parameters between SCA subjects and control subjects and the VOC and steady state sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects.
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