Informed Consent in Transfusion Medicine: An Ethical Obligation Or a Legal Compulsion to Avert Liabilities for Negligence to the Health Care Provider
International Blood Research & Reviews,
Blood transfusion is oftentimes life-saving but associated with risks which ought to be disclosed by the health care provider as an ethical obligation and legal requirement. The practice of informed consent to transfusion medicine is quite new and few studies have comprehensively x-rayed its historical, ethical and legal implications with an in depth consideration of professional negligence using decided cases by the adversarial and arbitration systems. PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, African Journal on Line (AJOL) electronic databases were searched using combined keywords like; “Blood transfusion and informed consent” “informed choice to transfusion medicine practice”, “consent in transfusion medicine”, “health care giver and consent to transfusion therapy”, “transfusion consent and the health care seeker”, “liability and informed consent to transfusion” and “contemporary issues in medical negligence”. Relatedly, printed materials were considered. The 91 studies that met the inclusion criteria were considered with highlights showing that, informed consent to medical treatment generally is an age long practice running from roman civilization to the present but its advocated practice in transfusion medicine a recent event. The practice is also generally low in comparison with informed consent taken for other treatments in similar settings. The consequences of dereliction including infamous conduct amongst professionals or negligence with direct and vicarious liabilities in adversary systems has been set in precedent judgments. These in addition to the present day patient-centered care model as global best practice and quality in health care delivery is compelling for health care providers to imbibe the practice not as a form of defensive medicine but a repertoire to quality and responsive Medicare service.
How to Cite
World Health Organization. WHO model list of essential medicines: 20th list. WHO Med web. 2017;62.
Available:http//www who int/medicines/publications/EML [Internet].
Mulcahy A, Kapinos K, Briscombe B, Uscher-Pines L, Chaturvedi R, Case S, et al. Toward a sustainable blood supply in the united states: An analysis of the current system and alternatives for the future [Internet]. Toward a Sustainable Blood Supply in the United States: An Analysis of the Current System and Alternatives for the Future. 2017;217.
Goodnough LT. Blood management: Transfusion medicine comes of age. Lancet [Internet]. 2013;381(9880):1791–2.
Leparc GF. Informed consent for blood transfusion. J Fla Med Asso. 1991;78(7):423–5.
Science Daily. Blood transfusions should not go ahead without informed consent. BMJ-British Med Journal [Internet]. Available from: BMJ-British Medical Journal. (2010, August 24). Blood transfusions should not go ahead without informed consent, experts say. ScienceDaily; 2010.
Available:www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/08/100824231220.htm%0A%0ABMJ-British Medical Journa
Friedman M, Bizargity P, Gilmore S, Friedman A. Patient inclusion in transfusion medicine: current perspectives. Int J Clin Transfus Med. 2015;3:7–16.
Committee on quality of health care in America; Institute of Medicine. Shaping the Future; Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21th century [Internet]. Institute of Medicine. National Academies Press. 2001;1–8.
Newman BH. Blood donor complications after whole-blood donation. Curr Opin Hematol [Internet]. 2004;11(5):339–45.
Flanagan BG and peter. Informed consent for whole blood donation. vox Sang. 2020;115(1):3–10.
Newman BH, Pichette S, Pichette D, Dzaka E. Adverse effects in blood donors after whole-blood donation: A study of 1000 blood donors interviewed 3 weeks after whole-blood donation. Transfusion. 2003;43(5):598–603.
Levine EG, Brandt LJ, Plumeri P. Informed consent: a survey of physician outcomes and practices. Gastrointest Endosc. 1995;41(5):448–52.
Farrugia A, CDB. Some reflections on the code of ethics of the international society of blood transfusion. Blood Transfus Rev. 2015;13:551–8.
Bird S. Consent to medical treatment: The mature minor. Aust Fam Physician. 2011;40(3):159–60.
Caine N and Roux J. Informed Consent and the Mature minor. PathCare Pathol Forum Med Ethics Ed. 2010;3(3):13–8.
Sataloff RT, Johns MM, Kost KM. Clinical Guidelines for the use of blood products in South Africa 5th edition [Internet]. 2014;87.
Isbister JP, Shander A, Spahn DR, Erhard J, Farmer SL, Hofmann A. Adverse blood transfusion outcomes: Establishing causation. Transfus Med Rev. 2011;25(2):89–101.
Osime C. Understanding medical ethics in a contemporary society. Benin J Postgrad Med [Internet]. 2009;10(1):1–10.
Okojie E. Professional medical negligence in Nigeria. Practice [Internet]. 1994;(3):1–14. Available:http://www.nigerianlawguru.com/articles/torts/Professional Medical Negligence in Nigeria.pdf
Kornstein MJ, Byrne SP. The medicolegal aspect of error in pathology: A search of jury verdicts and settlements. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131(4):615–8.
Laws 2011 Louisiana, Statutes R, Safety T 40 — P health and, Applications R 40:1299. 4. — D and general. La. Rev. Stat. 2015;9(129):104–5.
Chima SC. Evaluating the quality of informed consent and contemporary clinical practices by medical doctors in South Africa: An empirical study. BMC Med Ethics. 2013;14(SUPPL.1):S1–3.
Mallardi V. The origin of informed consent. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital organo Uff della Soc Ital di Otorinolaringol e Chir cervico-facciale. 2005;25(5):312–27.
Kumar N. Informed consent: Past and present. Perspect Clin Res. 2013;4(1): 21.
Dalla-Vorgia P, Lascaratos J, Skiadas P, Garanis-Papadatos T. Is consent in medicine a concept only of modern times? J Med Ethics. 2001;27(1):59–61.
Lejla Zunic EK, IM. Medical ethics in the medieval Islamic sciences. J Res Pharm Pract. 2014;3(3):75–6.
Pre-modern Islamic medical ethics and Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryology - PubMed.
York C of A of N. Schoendorff v. Society of New York Hosp [Internet]. 1914;211 N.Y1:105 N.E. 9292-94.
Court of appeals of california, first district DO. Salgo v. Leland Stanford Jr., University Board of Trustees. 1957;154 Cal. App. 2d 560;317 P.2d 170.
Tom beauchamp. informed consent_ its history, meaning, and present challenges _. Cambridge Q healthc ethics [Internet]. 2011;20(4):515–23.
McQueen MJ. Ethics and laboratory medicine. Clin Chem. 1990;36(8 I):1404–7.
West JM. Ethical issues in the care of JehovahÊs Witnesses. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2014;27(2):170–6.
Elhence P. Ethical issues in transfusion medicine. Indian J Med Ethics [Internet]. 2006;18(3):87–9.
Orkuma JA, Ayia ON. Ethico-legal aspects of hospital-based blood transfusion practice; implications of professional negligence to medical practitioners: a review. Int J Med Biomed Res [Internet]. 2014;3(3):219–35.
Chandrashekar S, Kantharaj A. Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion. Indian J Anaesth. 2014;58(5):558–64.
ISBT. Code_of_ethics_new_logo_-_feb_2011; 2006;1.
National Blood Transfusion Service. Operational guidelines for blood transfusion service practice in Nigeria. 2007;1–68.
WPBTS, SANBS. Standards of practice for blood transfusion in South Africa. Issued March 2016. 7th ed. 2017;49.
ISBT. Code of ethics relating to transfusion medicine. 2017;1–6.
World Health assembly. World health assembly and executive board resolutions on blood safety and availability. World Heal Assem Exec Board Resolut Blood Saf Availab. 2011;1–4.
National standards for blood transfusion service Edition 1-2013 blood safety program, health care and diagnostic division department of medical services ministry of health Thimphu: Bhutan [Internet].
lindsay A, Alaishuski RDG, RED. The informed consent process in whole blood donation. Arch Path Lab Med. 2008;132(3):309–15.
Council I. The international council of nurses code of ethics for nurses. Int Nurs Rev [Internet]. 2000;47(3):138–41.
MDCN. Rules of professional conduct for medical and dental practitioners: code on medical ethics in Nigeria [Internet]. Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria. 1995;1–37.
Available:https://www.mdcn.gov.ng/images/CPD_Resources/Code of Medical Ethics in Nigeria.pdf
Menendez JB. Informed consent: Essential legal and ethical principles for nurses. JONA’s Healthc Law, Ethics, Regul. 2013;15(4):140–4.
Johnstone MJ. Nursing ethics and informed consent. Aust Nurs J. 1993;19(5):29.
Whitmore E, Gerrard R, Coffey K. Gaining informed consent for blood transfusion. Nurs Times. 2014;110(36):12–4.
Health S, Professions S, President S, To A, Date C, Law G, et al. Health professions act 56 of 1974 establishment , objects , functions and powers of the health professions council of South Africa. 2008;1–63.
Garner B (Ed). Black’s law dictionary, 9th edition, St Paul, Minn.,West Thomson Reuters. 2009;346.
Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Constitution of the federal republic of nigeria 1999 arrangement of sections chapter I general provisions part I federal republic of Nigeria [Internet]. 1999;1–169.
Arogundade RA, Omiyi DO. Malpractice and medicolegal issues in radiology practice: knowledge base for residency trainees and trainers. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2010;17(3):227–32.
Joint United Kingdom (UK) blood transfusion and tissue transplantation services professional advisory committee. Informed Consent. In: Guidelines for the Blood Transfusion Services [Internet]. 2013;1–2.
Campbell M. Montgomery v lanarkshire health board. Common Law World Rev. 2015;44(3):222–8.
Babalola Abegunde. Legal implications of ethical breaches in medical practice: Nigeria a case study. Asian J Humanit Soc Sci. 2013;1(3):2320–9720.
A. Epstein R. Commentaries on the laws of England. Classical Foundations of Liberty and Property. 2019; 135–175.
The Foundation of Medical Malpractice _ Gilman and Bedigian.
Wandler M. The history of the informed consent requirement in United States federal policy [Internet]. 2015;1–40.
Court E. Blyth v. Birmingham waterworks Co. 1856;11 Exch 781.
LPELR-SC.251/2001. Ojo v Dr Gharoro. 2006;173:2-3 S.C 105.
The Supreme Court of Nigeria. SC.70/1988. Ignatius Odinaka and Anor. V. Felix Nkanyichukwu Moghalu. 1992;4 NWLR (Pt. p. 1 at 15).
High Court. Bolam v Friern hospital management committee. 1957;1,WLR: 582.
Hillyer CD, Silberstein LE, Ness PM, Anderson KC, Roback JD. Blood Banking and transfusion medicine. Blood Bank Transfus Med; 2007.
Court of Appeal. Hucks v Cole CA. 1968;4 Med LR:393.
United States court of appeals for the district of columbia circuit. Canterbury v. Spence. 1972;464 F.2d:782.
Supreme court of Nigeria. Diamond Bank V. Partnership Investment Co. Ltd. 200;LCN/3651(SC).
PV der MG, D. Medical negligence. PathCare Pathol Forum>Medical Ethics Ed. 2010;3(3):13–8.
Brian Grainger EM, EP. Legal and ethical considerations in blood transfusion. CMAJ. 156(11suppl):S1.
Appeals NYC of. Cygan v. Kaleida Health [Internet]. p. NY Slip Op 04159 [51 AD3d 1373; 2008.
Court of Appeal /262/2007. George ABI v. Central Bank of Nigeria and ORS. 2011;LCN/4597(CA).
Murray SO. / Stephen O. Abatan v. Dr. Mormodu Awudu. 2005;2 CLRN 55.
Lords H of. Caparo Industries plc v Dickman. 1990;ALL ER 568,  2 AC 605.
Court of Appeal of Louisiana FC. PATIN v. Administrators of tulane educational fund. 2000;99-CA-3027.
Cir. Plaintiff fell down the steps of the mobile unit after donating blood. The. 2000;3:1–59.
Court of Appeal of Louisiana TC. Elizabeth George v. our lady of lourdes regional medical center, INC. 2000;774 So. 2d 350.
Georgia C of A of. Smith et al. v. Hospital authority of walker, dade and catoosa counties. VLR (Eq), Victorian Reports. 1981;4:233–5.
Shah P, Thornton I, Turrin D. Informed Consent - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. Shah P, Thornton I, Turrin D, et al. Informed Cons; 2020.
South Africa. Supreme Court CPDSALR. Castell v. De Greef. 1994;(4):408-41.
Hanson R, Stromberg R. Hospital Liability for Negligence. Hastings Law J. 1969;21(1):1.
Canada SC of. Reibl v. Hughes. Dominion law reports. 1980;114:1–35.
ICLR. Sidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlem Royal Hospital and the Maudsley Hospital and Others. Vol. AC. 1982;871–905.
Division NYSCA. Randolph v. City of New York. 1986;19501:837–46.
Nigeria CL of the SC of. DR. ROM. Okekearu V. Danjuma TANKO-2002. 2002;SC.73/1998.
Nigeria SC of. Tega Esabunor and Anor v. Dr. Tunde Faweya and ORS. 2019;SC.97/2009.
New York Court of Appeals. Fosmire v. Nicoleau. 1990;551:77-89.
LPELR. Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal v. Dr John Emewulu Nicholas Okonko. 2001;213:1999.
Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts H. Superintendent of Belchertown State School vs. Saikewicz, 373 Mass. 728 [Internet]. 370 N.E.2d 417.
Canada Ontario, Supreme Court C of A. Malette v. Shulman. Dominion law reports. 1990;67:321–39.
Wikipedia. English tort law - Wikipedia. In Wikipedia.
Woldu M. Medical liability in the eritrean context. J Eritrean Med Assoc JEMA [Internet]. 2006;1(1):31–5.
Wright JS, Judge C. Williams v. Jackson Parish Hospital, 00-3170 (La. 10/16/01). 2006;445.
Brown RH. The pediatrician and malpractice. Pediatrics. 1976;57(3):392–401.
Abstract View: 157 times
PDF Download: 91 times