Inflammatory Markers in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Petrol and Petroleum Products
International Blood Research & Reviews,
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State and Laboratory Department, JAROS Inspection Services Limited, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, between April 2018 and June 2018.
Methodology: A total of 204 samples comprising of 123 auto-mechanics and 81 non -auto-mechanics were assayed. Detailed information of the bio-data of the subjects including age, gender, medical history, health information and lifestyle were obtained from each participant. Blood samples were collected from for the analysis of inflammation markers, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP were determined using standard methods and techniques. The effect of age and duration of exposure on the inflammation parameters were considered. Statistical Analysis System (SAS), STAT 15.1, developed by SAS Institute, North Carolina State University, USA was used for statistical analysis. Data were presented as Mean ± SEM, comparison of means of groups that are more than two was done using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and the Tukey test of multiple comparison was used to test for variance within and across groups.
Results: There was significant increase in the means of IL-6, TNF-α and CRP in the exposed subjects (p <0.05) compared with the control subjects There was no significant difference (p >0.05) in the means of IL-6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the age groups of the exposed and the control subjects. Similarly, there was no significant difference between the groups, based on duration of exposure. This suggests that the toxic effect does not depend on the age or duration of exposure but on other factors for the automechanics in Aba.
Conclusion: This study shows that the exposure of automechanics may significantly increase the serum IL-6 TNF-α and Hs-CRP levels. Increase in the serum levels of the inflammation markers is predictive of the danger of future pathology in automechanics compared with non automechanics in Aba metropolis. Age and duration did not influence significant variation in the automechanics.
- petroleum products
- c-reactive proteins
How to Cite
Ekpenyong CE, Asuquo EA. Recent advances in occupational and environmental health hazards of workers exposed to gasoline compounds. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. 2017;30:1-26,
Shaikh A, Barot D, Chande D. Genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. The international journal of occupational and environmental medicine. 2018;9(2):79–87.
Brucker Natalia, Angela M, Mariele FC, Juliano D, Fernando F, Marilia B, Sabrina N, Bruna G, Rachel P. Bulcao, Guilherme B, Pedsro D, Flavia V, Adriana G, Marta MMF, Iran de Castro, Paulo H. S., Solange., C. Garcia. Biomarkers of occupational exposure to air pollution, inflammation and oxidative damage in taxi drivers. Science of the Total Environment. 2013; 463:884-93.
Gunathialaka ML, Niriella MA, Luke NV, Piyathna CL, Siriwadena RC, De-Silva AP, Janaka de Silva H. Possible gasoline induced chronic liver injury due to occupational moto mechanic : a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2017;11;179-181.
Connellan SJ. Lung diseases associated with hydrocarbon exposure. Respiratory Medicine, 2017;126:46-51.
Prati C. Demougeot, Guillot CX, Godfrin M, Wendlin, D. Endothelial dysfunction in joint diseases. Joint, Bone and Spine. 2014;81(5):336-91.
Tsai DH Riediker M, Berchet A, Paccaud F, Waeber G, Vollenweider P, Bochud M. Effects of short-term and long-term exposures to particulate matter on inflammatory marker levels in the general population. Environmental Science Pollution Research International. 2019; 26(19):19697-704.
Simpson RJ, Guy K. Coupling, aging and immunity with sedentary lifestyle: has the damage already been done. A mini review. Gerontology.2010;56(5):449- 58.
Beavers KN, Brinkley JE, Nicklas BJ. Effect of exercise training on chronic inflammation. Clinica chimica acta. International Journal of Clinical Chemistry. 2010;411(1):786-793.
Davel AP, Lenos M, Pastro LM, Pedro SC, De-Andre PA, Hebado C, Farsky SH, Saldiva PH, Rossoni LV. Endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary artery induced by concentrated fine particulate matter exposure is associated with local but not systemic inflammation. Toxicology, 2012;295:39-46.
Aleemuddin M, Babu MG, Majunath M, Quadri SS. Effect of chronic inhalation of petroleum products on haematological parameters. Academic review. International Journal of Current Research, 2015;3:196-201.
Odewabi AO, Ogundahunsi AO, Oyalowo. Effect of Exposure to Petroleum fumes on plasma antioxidant defense system in petrol attendants. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2014;5(2):83-7.
World medical considerations of Helsinki (WMCH). Principles for research involving animals and human beings. American Journal of Physiology. 2002;283:2281- 3.
Felding I, Kristoffersson U, Sjösröm H, Norėn O. Contribution to the 18q-syndrome. A patient with del (18) (q22.3qter). Clinical Genetics. 1987;31(4):206-10.
Herreweghe FV, Festjens N, Decleroq W, Vandenabeele P. Tumour necrosis factor-mediated cell death: To break or to burst, that’s the question. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2010;67:1567-9.
Freidman RB, Young DS. Effect of disease on clinical laboratory tests. Fourth edition, pp. AACC press.2001;682-692.
Hall JE. Inflammation: Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology. Twelfth edition. PublishersSaunders Elsevier. 2011;428-430.
Neghab M, Hosseinzadeh K, Hassanzadeh. Early liver and kidney dysfunction associated with occupational Exposure to sub-threshold limit value levels of benzene, Toluene, and xylenes in unleaded petrol. Safety Health Work. 2015;6(4):312-6.
Hajat MA, Diazroux AV, Jenny NS, Jorgensen NW, Szpiro AA, Vedal S, Kaufman JD. Long-term exposure to air pollution and markers of inflammation, coagulation and endothelial activation, a repeat measure analysis in the multi -ethnic study. Epidemiology. 2015;26 (3):310- 5.
Krishman RM, Sullivan JH, Caristen C, Wilkerson H, Bammler T, Farin F, Peretz A, Caufman JD. A randomized cross-over study of inhalation of diesel exhaust : haematological indices and endothelial markers in humans. Particle and Fiber Toxicology. 2013;10(1):7-11.
Clark III J. D., Serdar B., Lee D. J., Arheart K., Wilkinson J. D., Fleming L. E. Exposure to polycyclic Lee aromatic hydrocarbons and serum inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease. Environmental Research, 2012; 117:132–7.
Kamal, A and Malik, R.N. Martelini, T. and Cincinelli, A. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure biomarkers are associated with clinic- chemical changes in brick kiln workers in Pakistan. Science of Total Environment, 2014; 490: 521–7.
Caravedo MA, Herrera PM, Bernabe-Oritz A, Casas JP, Smith GD, Ebrahim S, Garcia HH, Malagar G, Montori VM, Smeath ML, Dieta GB, Wise R, Checkley W. Chronic exposure to biomass fuel smoke and markers of endothelial inflammation. Indoor Air. 2016;26 (5):768-75.
Singh T, Newman AB. Inflammatory population studies on ageing. Ageing. 2011;10(3):319-29.
Neophytou AM, Hart JE, Cavallari JM, Smith TJ, Dockey DW, Coull BA, Garshick E, Laden F. Traffic related exposure and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress: A panel study in the United State trucking industry. Environmental Health, 2014;12 (1):105-9.
Willett WC. Overview and perspective in human nutrition. Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008;17 (1):1-4.
Anderson RM, Wendruch R. The caloric restriction paradigm: implications for healthy human aging. American Journal of Human Biology. 2012;24(2):101-6.
Nieman DC, Wentz LM. The compelling link between physical exercise and body defence system. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2019;8(3):2010-17.
Holt EM, Steffin LM, Moran A, Hong CP, Sinaiko AR. Fruit and vegetable consumption and its relationship with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in idolescents. Journal of American Diet Association, 2009;109(3):414-21.
Pauwels EK. The protective effect of the mediteranean diet focus on cancer and cardiovascular risk. Medical principal practitioner. 2011;20 (2):103-11.
Woods JA, Wilund KR, Martin SA, Kisler BA. Exercise, inflammation and aging. Aging and Disease. 2012;3(1):130-40.
Arkin CE, Bessman J, Calam R. Procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens by veinipuncture: approved standard. Clinical Laboratory Institute. 2003;23(32):52-53.
Abstract View: 161 times
PDF Download: 95 times