Assessment of Some Haematological, Coagulation and Immune Parameters among Male Oil Refinery Workers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
International Blood Research & Reviews,
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some hematological, coagulation and immune parameters among male oil refinery workers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Study Design: This study is a cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH), Port Harcourt, Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited and Modular Oil Refinery, Rivers State, between January 2021 and September 2021.
Methodology: A total of one hundred (100) subjects (50 oil and gas workers as test subjects and 50 non-oil and gas workers as control subjects), were enrolled in the study. The convenient sampling technique was employed in the study. Venous blood samples were collected from all subjects and tested for Prothrombin Time (PT), Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Fibrinogen concentration, Full Blood Count (FBC) (Haemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Total White Blood Cell (WBC) count, Lymphocyte, Neutrophils, monocytes and Platelet Count), CD4 cell count, CD3 cell count and CD8 cell count. Data generated were analyzed statistically using Graph-Pad Prism, Version 8.0.2.
Results: There was statistically significant decrease (P<.001) in Prothrombin time (PT) (11.55±0.73s), International Normalized Ratio (INR) (0.85±0.05), Fibrinogen (202.4±27.4mg/dl), Platelet count (185.6±37.1(103/μl)) and Neutrophils (46.6±6.4%) in oil refinery workers exposed to gas flare, while there was a statistical significant increase in APTT (31.8±4.15s), Hb (13.7±1.0g/dl), PCV (41.1±3.2%), Monocytes (8.4±3.0%) in subjects exposed to gas flare over control subjects with Prothrombin time(12.23±0.82s), INR(0.90±0.06), Fibrinogen(252.0±57.0mg/dl), platelet count(213.3±49.5(103/μl)) and Neutrophils(52.6±11.7%). Other parameters showed no statistical significant difference at P<.05 in both test and control subjects. Comparison of the mean ± standard deviation of the studied parameters in test subjects based on age using Analysis of Variance showed no statistically significant difference in all parameters at P<.05. Also, Comparison of the mean ± standard deviation of the studied parameters in test subjects based on duration of Exposure using Analysis of Variance showed a significant decrease in CD8 cells as the years of exposure increase (2-5years exposure = 865±319, 6-10years exposure = 579±288, 11-20 years exposure = 591± 286, F- Value = 3.869, P- Value = 0.0278).
Conclusion: In conclusion, based on the findings, some haematogical, coagulation and immune parameters increased while others decreased in male oil refinery workers and duration of exposure can also be considered as a risk factor and age was considered not a risk factor as to cause any aberrations in the studied parameters.
- immune parameters
- male oil refinery workers
- Port Harcourt
How to Cite
Anderson RD, Assembayev DV, Bilalov R, Duissenov D, Shutemov D. TPG 4140 – Natural Gas, Trondheim; 2012.
Abdulrahman AO, Huisingh D, Hafkamp W. Environmental Impacts of Gas Flaring. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2015;98: 116-22.
Andalibmoghadam SH. 1st Professional Iranian Environmental Conference, Environmental Department of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. 2007;51:76-82.
Eman AE. Gas flaring in industry: An overview. Petroleum and Coal. 2015;57(5): 532-55.
McBride JA, Striker R. Imbalance in The Game of T cells. Pathogy. 2017;13(11):1-4.
Gao G, Jakobsen B. Molecular Interactions of Co-receptor CD8 and MHC class1: The Molecular Basis for Functional Coordination with the T-Cell receptor. Immunolology Today. 2000;21(12):630- 6.
Zheng L, Lin J, Zhang B, Zhu Y, Li N, Xie S. Structural basis of assembly of the human T cell receptor CD3 complex. Nature. 2019;573(7775):546–52.
Arawu SC, Ibeh SC. Effect of Chronic exposure to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollution on kidney function parameters of individuals native to Ebocha Niger Delta. International Journal of Advances in Medical Sciences. 2017;2(4):1-7.
Dung E, Bombom L, Agusomu T. The effects of gas flaring on crops in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Geojournal. 2008;73(4): 297-305.
Ezejiofor TIN. Haematological indicators of exposure to petroleum products in petroleum refining and distribution industry workers in Nigeria. Journal of Clinical Toxicology. 2016;6:1-4.
Jaja T, Reginald J. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Automated Full Blood count (Sysmex KX-21N). Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital Port Harcourt. Document ID: HM-SOP-4.2-2. Version; 2016.
Helena C-1 Single Channel Coagulometer. Operation Manual for Helena C-1 Software: C1. 20a. For In-vitro Diagnostic use. Instrumentation and Reagents for Coagulation/Haemostasis. Helena Bioscience Europe; 2009.
Nwankwo CN, Ogagarue DO. Journal of Geology and Mining Research. 2011; 3(5):131–6.
Gobo AE, Richard G, Ubong IUJ. Appl. Sc. Environ. Managr. 2009;13(3):27–33.
World Bank. Defining and Environmental strategy for the Niger Delta. West Central Africa Department World bank, Washington DC. 1995;150.
Egwurugwu JN, Nwafor A, Ezekwe S. Impacts of prolonged exposure to gas flares on some blood indices in humans in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Archives of Applies Science Research. 2013;5(1): 98–104.
Hanan MF, Sanaa SA, Samira MS, Mohamed EE, Yasser AA. Phenotype analysis of lymphocytes in workers with chronic benzene exposure. The Egyptian Journal of Haematology. 2017; 42(4):1-7.
Ezejiofor TIN. Haematological indicators of exposure to petroleum products in petroleum refining and distribution industry workers in Nigeria. Journal of Clinical Toxicology. 2016;6:1-7.
Christian SG, Elekima IO, Uchechukwu A, Aleru CP. Effect of petroleum on haematological parameters and lead level in fuel Attendants in Port Harcourt. International Journal of Science and Research. 2016;5:2319–7064.
Baccarelli A, Zanobetti A, Martinelli I, Grillo P, Hou L, Giacomini S, et al. Effects of exposure to air pollution on blood coagulation. Journal of Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2007;5(2):252-60.
Bonzini M, Tripodi A, Artoni A, Tarantini L, Marinelli P, Bertazzi PA, et al. Effects of inhalable particulate matter on blood coagulation. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2010;8(4):662–8.
John W, Harvey DVM. Evaluation of Haemostasis. Veterinary Haematology. KCCT-General Practice Note book. Oxbridge Solutions; 2020,2010.
Elias S, Dimitris P, Papadopoulos HG, Maris V, Kostas T, John B, Vasilios P. Air pollution and Arterial Hypertension. A new Risk Factor is the Air, Journal of the American Society of Hypertension. Accepted Date: s15 September 2017.
Adienbo OM, Nwafor A. Effect of prolong Exposure to Gas flaring on some Haematological parameters of Humans in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Journal of Applies Science Environmenta. Management. 2010;14(1):13–15.
Dutta P, Nahrendorf M. Regulation and Consequences of Monocytosis. Immunological Reviews. 2014;262(1):167–8.
Christopher EE, Asu Quo EA. Recent Advances in Occupational and Environmental Health Hazards of workers exposed to gasoline compounds. Int. J. Occup. Med. Environ. Health. 2017; 30(1):1–26.
Abstract View: 151 times
PDF Download: 55 times