International Blood Research & Reviews 2022-01-05T12:51:38+00:00 International Blood Research & Reviews Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Blood Research &amp; Reviews (ISSN:&nbsp;2321–7219)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IBRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Blood related research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Coronavirus: A Laboratory Perspective 2021-08-06T05:18:21+00:00 Ransom Baribefii Jacob Chukwu Christopher Ifunaya Emeji Roseline <p>COVID-19 is a virus of the species of the Family coronaviridae known as as SARS-COV-2. This virus is easily contracted and/transmitted from an infected person to another healthy individual and has continued to spread rapidly. The aim of this review is to identify laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 test are aimed at detecting active infection, or past infection, or an immunization so as to treat and curb the further spread of the virus. The initial viral detection is typically carried out with the upper respiratory tract (URT) sample. Repeated testing is particularly helpful and essential if a patient has a clinical appearance of viral pneumonia, radiographic results consistent with pneumonia and/or a history of potential exposure. The Centre of Disease Control and Prevention, CDC recommends the collection of specimens from the lower respiratory tract, upper respiratory tract, and the blood. The lower respiratory tract sample includes; the sputum, broncheoalveolar lavage, bronchial wash, tracheal aspirate, and pleural fluid.&nbsp; The upper respiratory tract specimens include; the nasopharyngeal swab, and oropharyngeal swab (NP/OP swabs). Some laboratory techniques developed and in use for the detection of Covid-19 are; nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), antibody detection, and viral antigen detection. The role of the laboratory assay in diagnosis of COVID-19 infection or disease cannot be &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;under-estimated, timing and site of specimen collected must be followed by adequate &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;professional training to ensure result accuracy. This review provides information on available laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of the viral infection and their potential merits and &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;limitations.</p> 2021-08-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Overview of Adverse Events Associated with Anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy 2021-09-06T12:38:43+00:00 Ekaterina Vorozheikina Magdalena Ruiz Leticia Solari Dmitry Ostasevich Luis Mendoza <p>Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells represent a novel immunotherapy that has shown remarkable success in the treatment of adult relapsed or refractory (R/R) B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, adult R/R mantle cell lymphoma, and R/R acute paediatric lymphoblastic leukaemia. One barrier to the widespread use of CAR T-cell therapy is toxicity, primarily cytokine release syndrome (CRS) with a variable grade of severity. The main manifestations of CRS are fever, hypotension, cytopenia, organ dysfunction among others. Neurological toxicities vary widely and range from headaches to encephalopathy. In addition, anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy provokes an array of less frequent events, such as coagulopathies, delayed cytopenia, and cardiovascular toxicities. In general, toxicities are usually reversible and resolve on their own in most cases, though severe cases may require intensive care and immunosuppressive therapy. Deaths due to CRS, neurologic toxicity and infectious complications have been reported, which highlights the gravity of these syndromes and the critical nature of appropriate intervention. In this paper, we look at all available FDA- and EMA-approved information about the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, risk factor reviews of existing toxicity grading systems, current management strategies, and guidelines for anti-CD19 CAR T-cell toxicities. We also present new approaches, which are under investigation, to mitigate these adverse events.</p> 2021-09-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Laboratory Methods for COVID-19 Diagnosis 2022-01-05T12:44:17+00:00 Jonathan Nyebuchi Emeji, Roseline Konne Felix Eedee <p>Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause disease in mammals and birds. Covid-19 infection occurs due to an RNA virus which is single-stranded, called SARS-CoV-2; this virus is similar to SARS-CoV. This review throws light on the available laboratory techniques used for testing coronavirus. Certain challenges are encountered during the development of a diagnostic test for a novel pathogen, which depends on sensitivity of the method, that is, the potential in detecting very low pathogen level for early laboratory diagnosis, produce little or no interference with other strains of the virus, and produce results rapidly. Since the time of incubation and clinical manifestation of the infection are relatively the same with SARS, the widespread and effect of COVID-19 globally serve as the basis why the development of quick and reliable laboratory methods are necessary. Samples that could be collected for covid-19 testing includes blood (especially for screening purpose), nasal and throat swab. Currently, the gold standard method for laboratory diagnosis of Covid-19 infection is RT-PCR, which serves as a confirmatory method for Covid-19 testing. EIA and SVN laboratory techniques are other techniques used in detecting the viral infection. In addition, Rapid Diagnostic Testing (RDT) are currently developed for point-of-care testing, and often used as a screening method of Covid-19 infections. Early detection of the virus remains the primary focus for the treatment and control of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Therefore, this review was aimed at the available laboratory methods used in the diagnosis for coronavirus infection.</p> 2021-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Convalescent Plasma for COVID-19- is it Time to Say Goodbye? A Single-Center, Retrospective, Observational Study from Northern India 2021-09-10T02:17:05+00:00 Rasika Setia Mitu Dogra Gokhula Prasath Thangavel Ramesh Yadav Amena Ebadur Rahman Atul Bhasin Rajesh Kumar Pande Sandeep Nayar R. K. Singal Anil Vardani Deepak Gargi Pande R. N. Saini Tribhuvan GulatI Vivek Pal Singh Sunny Kalra Gagan Anand Manish Garg Santosh Ghai N. M. Agarwal <p><strong>Background:</strong> COVID-19 pandemic continues threatening the world with no effective treatment to tackle the menace. Till date, there is conflicting evidence on efficacy of CP in reducing COVID-19 related mortality. The objective of this study was to see disease progression and 7, 14 and 28-day mortality after CP therapy and analyze CP efficacy with/without Remdesivir.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A retrospective single-centre observational study done from August 20, 2020, to 20 November 2020. Records of 294 COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe disease given CP therapy were analysed based on disease progression and length of hospital stay, further subcategorized on age, clinical profile, risk factors, ward/ICU, ventilatory support and co-administration of Remdesivir.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Lowest 7-day mortality rate was seen within age group 20-40 years (0%) and was highest in ≥61 years (24.3%). 87 patients on ventilatory support showed higher 28day mortality (48.28%) compared to non-ventilated (10.14%), (P&lt;0.00001). Lesser 7-day mortality was seen in early CP therapy ≤3 days of admission (P=0.01). Patients requiring ICU admission showed higher 14 and 28-day mortality compared to ward P=0.001%). Median (IQR) length of hospital stay from CP transfusion was shorter, 4 (3 to 9) days in group 2 (CP only) compared to 7 (4 to 12) days in group1 (CP+Remdesivir ).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> CP therapy in ≤3 days of hospital admission in COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe infection not on ventilatory support showed reduction in mortality and length of hospital stay. Length of hospital stay was shorter in the CP-only group as compared to the CP+ Remdesivir group.</p> 2021-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inflammatory Markers in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Petrol and Petroleum Products 2021-09-16T02:29:35+00:00 Anya Ojiugo Hannah Nwachuku Edna Ogechi A. Waribo Hellen Bartimaeus Ebirien-Agana Samuel <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Sample: Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Abia State and Laboratory Department, JAROS Inspection Services Limited, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, between April 2018 and June 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 204 samples comprising of 123 auto-mechanics and 81 non -auto-mechanics were assayed. Detailed information of the bio-data of the subjects including age, gender, medical history, health information and lifestyle were obtained from each participant. Blood samples were collected from for the analysis of inflammation markers, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP were determined using standard methods and techniques. The effect of age and duration of exposure on the inflammation parameters were considered.&nbsp; Statistical Analysis System (SAS), STAT 15.1, developed by SAS Institute, North Carolina State University, USA was used for statistical analysis. Data were presented as Mean ± SEM, comparison of means of groups that are more than two was done using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and the Tukey test of multiple comparison was used to test for variance within and across groups.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was significant increase in the means of IL-6, TNF-α and CRP in the exposed subjects (p &lt;0.05) compared with the control subjects There was no significant difference (p &gt;0.05) in the means of IL-6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the age groups of the exposed and the control subjects. Similarly, there was no significant difference between the groups, based on duration of exposure. This suggests that the toxic effect does not depend on the age or duration of exposure but on other factors for the automechanics in Aba.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study shows that the exposure of automechanics may significantly increase the serum IL-6 TNF-α and Hs-CRP levels. Increase in the serum levels of the inflammation markers is predictive of the danger of future pathology in automechanics compared with non automechanics in Aba metropolis. Age and duration did not influence significant variation in the automechanics.</p> 2021-09-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Haemoglobin Variants on Glycemic Indices 2022-01-05T12:47:09+00:00 Victor Tuanwii Ideede Jonathan Nyebuchi Albert Lesere Nwibani Friday Ogidigba Felix Eedee Konne Fyneface Chikadibia Amadi <p>Haemoglobin genotypes have been known to be linked with groups of diseases such as diabetes. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of haemoglobin variants on glycemic indices (fasting blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin) in subjects in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A total of 150subjects were enrolled for the study with AA group = 99 subjects and AS group = 51 subjects. 4mls of blood was collected into EDTA bottle for each subject and was assayed for Hb electrophoresis and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) using electrophoretic method and automated CLOVER A1c Analyser respectively. 2mls was collected into fluoride oxalate bottle for spectrophotometric analysis of fasting blood glucose (FBG). Results revealed that there were no significant differences in the FBG and HbA1C&nbsp; mean&nbsp; levels of the two studied groups (AA and AS). This study has shown that AA and AS blood genotypes may not have any impact on FBG and HbA1C glycemic parameters.</p> 2021-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Association of H. pylori with Serum Iron Levels and Some Risk Factors in Children Aged 1-12 Years Attending the Buea Regional Hospital 2022-01-05T12:48:23+00:00 Akwo Mekalo Nya-Nweme Jude Eteneneng Enoh Benjamin Thumamo Pokam Boris Tangi Fominyam Jules Clement Assob <p><strong>Background and Objective:</strong><em> Helicobacter pylori</em> (<em>HP</em>) is a very common human infection worldwide, colonizing the stomach of 50% of the world’s population<em>. H. pylori</em> play a major role in the development of iron deficiency, chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. <em>H. pylori</em> infection is more prevalent in developing countries and its acquisition is predominant in childhood. The aim was to determine the prevalence of <em>HP</em> and its association with serum iron levels in children aged 1-12 years attending the Buea Regional Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a hospital based cross sectional study involving 189 children. About 2 mL venous blood was collected and analyzed using immunoassay diaspot one step <em>H. pylori</em> Test Device and spectrophotometers to determine <em>H. pylori</em> immunoglobulin G and serum iron level respectively. Chi-square and Odd ratio test were used to determine the association at 95% confidence interval.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A prevalence of 31.7% (60/189) and 47.1% (73/155) for <em>H. pylori</em> and low serum iron level was observed respectively. There was significantly associated between <em>H. pylori</em> and serum iron levels, with majority (60% (36/60)) of the <em>HP </em>positive participants having normal iron level 60% (36/60) (<em>P</em>=0.007 χ<sup>2</sup>=9.91). A significant association was also observed between <em>HP </em>and Anemia, with majority (41.67% (25/60)) of those positive for <em>HP </em>experienced mild anemia (P=0.009 χ2=11.55). <em>H. pylori</em> was more prevalent among males 38.04% (35/92) compared to 25.77% (25/97) for females.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study recorded 31.7% and 47.1% prevalence of <em>H. pylori</em> and low serum iron level respectively, in the studied population. Male gender was most likely to be infected with <em>H. pylori</em> infection and children of age group 5 ≤ - &lt; 9 years recorded the highest <em>HP </em>infection. There was significantly associated between <em>H. pylori</em> and serum iron levels, as well as <em>H. pylori </em>and type of anemia, although majority of <em>H. pylori</em> positive individuals had high serum iron level and mild anemia. This may imply that <em>HP </em>remains one of many risk factors or comorbidities of anemia and abnormal iron levels.</p> 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigation of FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 Mutation Frequency in Myelodysplastic Syndrome 2022-01-05T12:50:01+00:00 Nesim Akin Atakan Turgutkaya Sare İlknur Yavaşoğlu Esra Örenlili Yaylagül Celal Ülger Ali Zahit Bolaman İrfan Yavaşoğlu <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase Class 3 (FLT3) mutations harbor poor prognosis, high relapse, and decreased overall survival in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). This mutation is also known to be demonstrated in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This study included 94 MDS-diagnosed patients and we tried to investigate FLT3 mutation frequency (as tyrosine kinase domain-TKD and internal tandem duplication-ITD).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism, and agarose-gel electrophoresis methods were used to analyze the mutation. The blood samples were collected in K3-EDTA tubes, and total DNA was isolated using genomic DNA isolation kits (GeneMark, Cat No: DP023P). For the detection of FLT3-ITD mutation, PCR was performed to amplify a 330- base pair fragment of exons 11 and 12 of <em>FLT3</em> using FAM (Carboxyfluorescein)-labeled ITD-11F and HEX (Hexachloro-Fluorescein )-labeled&nbsp; ITD-12R primers in a thermal cycler (Eppendorf). Similarly, to detect D835 mutation, a 115- bp region of exon 17 of the <em>FLT3</em> gene region was amplified using primers.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>One patient was found FLT3-ITD positive (1.1%). The patient was 64-year-old and diagnosed with MDS-excess blast type 2 according to the World Health Organisation 2016 myeloid neoplasm classification. He transformed to AML within 19 months and subsequently died after 1 month. No patient with tyrosine kinase domain mutation was detected.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>FLT3 mutation is considered a significant parameter to define prognosis in AML. The routine workup of FLT3 screening and the potential of targeting FLT3 inhibition for high-risk MDS may be taken into consideration in the future.</p> 2021-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Some Haematological, Coagulation and Immune Parameters among Male Oil Refinery Workers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2022-01-05T12:51:38+00:00 Ehiaghe-Shepherd, Bridget Obofoni Christian, Serekara Gideon Eze, Evelyn Mgbeoma <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some hematological, coagulation and immune parameters among male oil refinery workers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This study is a cross-sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH), Port Harcourt, Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited and Modular Oil Refinery, Rivers State,&nbsp;between January 2021 and September 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of one hundred (100) subjects (50 oil and gas workers as test subjects and 50 non-oil and gas workers as control subjects), were enrolled in the study. The convenient sampling technique was employed in the study. Venous blood samples were collected from all subjects and tested for Prothrombin Time (PT), Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Fibrinogen concentration, Full Blood Count (FBC) (Haemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Total White Blood Cell (WBC) count, Lymphocyte, Neutrophils, monocytes and Platelet Count), CD4 cell count, CD3 cell count and CD8 cell count. Data generated were analyzed statistically using Graph-Pad Prism, Version 8.0.2.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was statistically significant decrease (<em>P&lt;.001</em>) in Prothrombin time (PT) (11.55±0.73s), International Normalized Ratio (INR) (0.85±0.05), Fibrinogen (202.4±27.4mg/dl), Platelet count (185.6±37.1(10<sup>3</sup>/μl)) and Neutrophils (46.6±6.4%) in oil refinery workers exposed to gas flare, while there was a statistical significant increase in APTT (31.8±4.15s), Hb (13.7±1.0g/dl), PCV (41.1±3.2%), Monocytes (8.4±3.0%) in subjects exposed to gas flare over control subjects with Prothrombin time(12.23±0.82s), INR(0.90±0.06), Fibrinogen(252.0±57.0mg/dl), platelet count(213.3±49.5(10<sup>3</sup>/μl)) and Neutrophils(52.6±11.7%). Other parameters showed no statistical significant difference at <em>P&lt;.05</em> in both test and control subjects. Comparison of the mean ± standard deviation of the studied parameters in test subjects based on age using Analysis of Variance showed no statistically significant difference in all parameters at <em>P&lt;.05</em>. Also, Comparison of the mean ± standard deviation of the studied parameters in test subjects based on duration of Exposure using Analysis of Variance showed a significant decrease in CD8 cells as the years of exposure increase (2-5years exposure = 865±319, 6-10years exposure = 579±288, 11-20 years exposure = 591± 286, F- Value = 3.869, P- Value = 0.0278).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion, based on the findings, some haematogical, coagulation and immune parameters increased while others decreased in male oil refinery workers and duration of exposure can also be considered as a risk factor and age was considered not a risk factor as to cause any aberrations in the studied parameters.</p> 2021-12-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hypocholesterolemia and Statins in Multiple Myeloma 2021-08-13T05:24:54+00:00 Irfan Yavaşoğlu Atakan Turgutkaya <p>Statins are lipid-lowering agents. They also have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-proliferative functions. In this context, they are demonstrated to have beneficial effects on mortality in several malignancies including esophageal, breast, lung, liver, pancreatic, endometrial, and colorectal cancers. Multiple myeloma is considered as an incurable plasma cell disorder with current therapy; however due to the current knowledge about the correlation between cholesterol-lowering agents and myeloma; it’s suggested to have lower mortality rates for patients using statins.&nbsp; Patients with multiple myeloma usually have a low cholesterol level which is often underestimated by clinicians. Hereby we aimed to summarize the myeloma-hypocholesterolemia relationship and emphasize the importance of statins as an inexpensive and beneficial approach for these patients.</p> 2021-08-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##