International Blood Research & Reviews <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Blood Research &amp; Reviews (ISSN:&nbsp;2321–7219)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IBRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Blood related research’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (International Blood Research & Reviews) (International Blood Research & Reviews) Thu, 09 Jun 2022 10:35:54 +0000 OJS 60 Current and Emerging Laboratory Techniques for Malaria Diagnosis <p>Effective diagnostic methods must continue to be developed due to the effects of malaria on world health. Malaria is an infectious disease spread by mosquitoes that affects both people and other animals. It is the product of <em>Plasmodium</em> parasites, which are transmitted through bites from infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Other sporozoan species responsible for malaria infections include the sporozoan parasites <em>Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malaria, and Plasmodium knowlesi</em>. Routine diagnosis of malaria is impeded in areas where the disease is endemic by technical and infrastructure issues with laboratories. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential since good disease management is one of the primary actions of the Global Malaria Control Strategy. Accurate malaria detection is also crucial in order to inform malaria control efforts through epidemiologic screening and surveillance, for research reasons to evaluate the effectiveness of antimalarial medications and vaccines, and for blood bank screening. This study's main goal is to show some of the new and effective ways to diagnose malaria that go beyond the gold standard, light microscopy, which has some problems.</p> Clement Ugochukwu Nyenke, Evelyn Orevaoghene Onosakponome, Roseanne Adah Okafor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding Complement-mediated Nervous System aging in Order to Develop Neurodegenerative Therapeutics <p>Aging is becoming one of the biggest burdens to the developed world, mainly due to it being linked to a variety of diseases from neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease to cancer. It involves the dysregulation of virtually every biological process known, affecting every organ and tissue by distinct mechanisms, the nature of which is only now beginning to be truly understood. This is also true for memory loss, which is considered one of the most typical signs of old age. This is not surprising, given the still limited knowledge regarding how memories and thoughts are stored and utilised by the Central Nervous System (CNS). A potential hint, however, is the recent discovery that the complement system plays a role in synaptic pruning, which is essential for erasing unneeded memories. This is particularly intriguing given that the complement system is a branch of the innate immune system which has been documented as being overactive with aging. This review will thus cover what is currently known about the relationship between the immune system and aging and how the changes in the immune system with age affect the brain in an effort to direct further research. This topic has not been reviewed as a whole, which is why this paper aims to summarise the information on this topic whilst also elaborating on the gaps in research in order to develop potential therapies for neurodegeneration and immunosenescence.</p> Gabriel Pisani, Byron Baron ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 02 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Impact of Cramming in Medical Students <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To reveal pre- exam cramming among pre-clinical medical students, what drives this practice, failure due to cramming and the problems and difficulties related to the act of cramming.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> Cramming is common practice among struggling medical students. The prevalence of cramming is like an iceberg phenomenon. The act of stacking too many information just the night before an exam probably authorize the perpetrator to remember some information in the short term period and enable them to take in enough information for the exam. Along with this practice also comes sleep deprivation, mental and emotional disturbances and even substance abuse in order to achieve good marks and passing the exam. Unfortunately for some experts, cramming is not considered as learning.&nbsp; Procrastination and some other reason are believed to be the reason the culprit commits cramming.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cramming not only changes the behavior of the perpetrator, but also has an impact on his family, classmates, environment and future.</p> Forman Erwin Siagian ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparism of Microscopy and Molecular Diagnosis of Ehrlichia ruminantium in Cattles in Makurdi Benue Nigeria <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Makurdi, is the capital city of Benue State, the food basket of the Nigeria, the city challenged with<em> Ehrlichia ruminantium</em> of cattle &nbsp;that are responsible for severe losses caused either by negative impact of ticks blood loss or blood related infections, damage to hides and others.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study was designed to identify and Characterize <em>Ehrlichia ruminantium</em> of Cattle within Makurdi Nigeria using microscopy and molecular techniques (PCR).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Blood sample were collected from a total of 432 cattle of both sexes and analyzed microscopically using thin blood film and DNA examination was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tick-borne pathogens were identified and characterized by PCR amplification using species specific primer of 16s rRNA for <em>Ehrlichia</em>. Data obtained were analyzed using chi square, t-test and P values at less than 0.05 were considered significantly different.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result of comparison of prevalence of infection of haeomoparasite using microscopy and PCR revealed that, microscopy was not able to detect <em>Ehrlichia</em> while PCR yielded at percentage of 15%, <em>Ehrlichia</em> prevalence. The percentage of prevalence of haemoparasite was highly detected by PCR than microscopy and this was statistically significant (P &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Ehrlichia ruminantium</em> in cattle have been seen to be prevalent in Makurdi metropolis and molecular method such as PCR can effectively diagnose the infection.</p> Terese Simon Atsuwe, Victor Ugochukwu Obisike, Edidiong John Udo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Serological Pattern of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Risk Factors among Infected Individuals in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria <p>Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious global public health challenge that affects more than two billion people worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the serological pattern of HBV infection in HBV infected patients in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the serological pattern of hepatitis B infection in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross sectional study carried out on 260 hepatitis B patients and blood donors attending hepatitis B clinics, and blood banks in Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Military Hospital, Port Harcourt, and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Choba. The study involved the use of hepatitis B panel assay, measurement of prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Port Harcourt, assessment of hepatitis B serological markers in all subjects, determination of the presence and prevalence of occult HBV among participants. HBV 5-parameter (panel) Rapid Test kit was used to assess HBV serological markers. Standard operation procedure, good laboratory practice, External/Internal Quality Control were used accordingly and Quality Assurance ensued. 84.2% participants were males, 15.8% females aged between 19 and 65 years, Mean ±SD age 30.57±9.70 years, Participants from 20 states, South-South, South-East, and other Geo-political Zones of Nigeria, resident in the cosmopolitan city of Port Harcourt were enrolled. Result obtained showed serological markers among test subjects as 77.3% HBsAg, 43.97% HBsAb, 48.94% HBcAg, 36.17% HBcAb, and 46.81% HBeAg.&nbsp; Grouping of HBV panel assay result was HBV positive 1 (Occult HBV) 7.8% (n=11), HBV positive 2 73.76% (n=104), HBV positive 3 – (occult HBV post treatment) 14.18% (n=20), HBV positive 4 4.26% (n=6). All five serological markers of HBV in infected patients in PHC are evident in significant proportions indicating real infections at different stages of disease manifestation. Mass screening for HBV infection is recommended for our populace to check spread.</p> Baribefe Banavule Daniel Koate, Teddy Charles Adias, Ebirien-Agana Samuel Bartimaeus, Zacchaeus Awortu Jeremiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Is Defibrotide Prophylaxis Effective on Graft Versus Host Disease in Patients with Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation? <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is one of the complications of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Defibrotide (DF) is used effectively in SOS prophylaxis and treatment. Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in allo-SCT. Here, we retrospectively investigated the effect of DF on the development of GVHD in these patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We evaluated 81 allo-transplanted patients due to various diagnoses (benign or malignant), retrospectively. Thirty-four patients used DF as prophylaxis while 47 patients did not receive it. Acute and chronic GVHD assessments were performed at +30/100<sup>th</sup> day and throughout the life of the patients, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Acute GVHD was more common with DF use (82% vs 61%). There was no statistical significance in terms of the effect on chronic GVHD. We observed that one patient in the non- DF group developed SOS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>DF may be beneficial to prevent acute GVHD. However, we observed that GVHD and mortality were more common in patients using DF. This is probably due to the similarity of high-risk criteria between GVHD and SOS. We have not found a significant association between defibrotide use and the development of chronic GVHD.</p> İrfan Yavaşoğlu, Atakan Turgutkaya, Hilal Eroğlu Küçükdiler, Gürhan Kadıköylü, Gökhan Sargın, Ali Zahit Bolaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 30 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Prevalence of Malaria in COVID-19 Patients among Blood Group Classification <p><strong>Background: </strong>COVID‐19 is caused by SARS‐CoV‐2; it is considered a global tragedy that has astounded health care systems. Since the pandemic began, identifying the characteristics that might influence risk of infection and poor disease outcomes have been of paramount interest. Malaria is still a major global health burden particularly in the sub-Saharan Africa region with about 230 million cases annually. Blood group systems are genetically inherited features whose associations with some infectious diseases have long been debated.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This observational study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of malaria in covid-19 patients based on blood group in Rivers State Isolation COVID-19 centers located in Rivers state Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>400 subjects participated and gave consent to be included in the study. Subjects were grouped ABO blood classification using commercially available anti-sera A, B. Microscopic method was used for the examination of malaria parasite and Giemsa staining technique.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of the 400 samples, 327 subjects were infected with malaria parasite while 73 were uninfected. Furthermore,91 subjects were blood group A,85 subjects were blood group B,10 subjects were blood group AB and 214 subjects were blood group O. Additionally, the number of subjects infected with malaria among blood group A, AB, B and O are 71, 69, 7 and 180 respectively. Also the distribution of covid-19 among blood group A, B, AB and O is 78.02%, 81.17%, 70.00%, and 84.11% respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of malaria and COVID -19 infection based on blood A, B, AB and O appeared to be 14.28%, 9.41%, 0.00% and 16.82% respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study has shown that most COVID-19 patients in Rivers state COVID-19 centers have blood groups O and A and had malaria co-infection. The prevalence of malaria with COVID-19 patients based on blood group was high amongst group O patient.</p> Onosakponome, Evelyn Orevaoghene ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Effectiveness of Different Regimens of Centrifugation for a Single-spin Method of Pure Platelet-containing Plasma Preparation <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of the study is to determine the optimal parameters of single centrifugation for the preparation of platelet-containing plasma (PCP) with maximum reduction of other cellular elements of the blood.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> 30 conditionally healthy persons aged 18 to 60 years (36.9±11.2 years) were included in the study. A total of 12 centrifugation modes were studied: 110g&nbsp;×&nbsp;5&nbsp;min, 110g&nbsp;×&nbsp;10&nbsp;min, 110g&nbsp;×&nbsp;15&nbsp;min, 140g&nbsp;×&nbsp;5&nbsp;min, 140g&nbsp;×&nbsp;10&nbsp;min, 140g&nbsp;×&nbsp;15&nbsp;min, 160g&nbsp;×&nbsp;5&nbsp;min, 160g&nbsp;×&nbsp;10&nbsp;min, 160g&nbsp;×&nbsp;15&nbsp;min, 190g&nbsp;×&nbsp;5&nbsp;min, 190g&nbsp;×&nbsp;10&nbsp;min, 190g&nbsp;×&nbsp;15&nbsp;min. To evaluate the effectiveness of different centrifugation modes, in addition to the number of basic cellular elements, such indicators as platelet capture efficiency, platelet enrichment factor, erythrocyte-reducing efficiencies and leukocyte-reducing efficiencies were studied.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> When examining the volumes of the obtained plasma containing platelets, it was found that almost all centrifugation modes allow obtaining significantly different volumes of the investigated blood fraction from the others (p&lt;0.001). For clarity, the regimens were sorted according to the volume of platelet-containing plasma obtained, from the smallest to the largest. There was a progressive decrease in the numerical values of the concentration of platelets, erythrocytes and leukocytes in plasma samples. Also there was a progressive decrease in the numerical values of the coefficient of platelet enrichment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> With a single centrifugation for the preparation of plasma containing platelets, the most effective mode is 160g × 10 min, which allows achieving a platelet enrichment factor of about 1.71 at a platelet concentration of 483.6 ± 45.4 × 10<sup>9</sup>/l, a platelet capture efficiency of 85, 7 ± 0.1% and reductions of erythrocytes and leukocytes 98.76 ± 0.09% and 98.46 ± 0.14%, respectively.</p> Viktoria Petrushenko, Dmytro Grebeniuk, Halyna Nazarchuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 09 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000