Open Access Review Article

Lenalidomide, p53 and del(5q) Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Ribosome Stress Relief

Demet Gokalp-Yasar, Johnson M. Liu

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2013/3234

Whereas deletions involving the long arm of chromosome 5 are among the most common chromosomal abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), isolated del(5q) MDS, which includes the 5q- syndrome, is rare and characterized by hypoplastic anemia and a moderate risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML).  The 5q- syndrome is now recognized as a ribosomopathy, and both the classic 5q- syndrome and del(5q) MDS are uniquely responsive to lenalidomide. However, the mechanism of action of lenalidomide is controversial and involves modulation of p53 activity, which may be beneficial in anemia remission but suggested to lead to malignant cell outgrowth.  Here, we critically review the literature on this important controversy, which has obvious implications for therapy of del (5q) MDS.    


Open Access Original Research Article

Erythropoietic and Bone Marrow Stimulating Activity of Terminalia catappa Extract: Possible Role of Nitric Oxide Signaling

I. A. Aimola, H. M. Inuwa, A. J. Nok, A. I. Mamman, N. Habila, A. Muhammad, A. S. Agbaji, A. Igoche, K. Ogungbemi, M. Tighil, Y. Usman

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2013/1812

Aims: We assessed the capacity and mechanism of Terminalia catappa (TC) to induce erythropoiesis in vivo in phenylhydrazine- induced anemic mice.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: This study was carried out at Department of Biochemistry and Center for Biotechnology Research and Training Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, and National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Zaria. The duration spanned between Jan 2011 and Feb 2012.

Methodology: Solvent fractions of Terminalia catappa aqueous extract was used to treat phynylhydrazine-induced anemic mice. Treatment was done for four days, erythropoietic activity of each fraction was assayed by determining the effect of these fractions on intracellular hemoglobin and reticulocyte level from the blood, arginase was also assayed. Bone marrow carbonic anhydrase was assayed to monitor bone marrow erythropoietic stimulation.

Results: Terminalia catappa was able to up-regulate the synthesis of intracellular hemoglobin (0.135 ±0.004 μmol/0.1ml) significantly comparable to hydroxyurea (HU) (0.158±0.006 μmol/0.1ml), and normalize the peripheral blood reticulocyte index significantly at P<.05 0.94±0.25% close to the non anemic mice 0.97±0.25% and bone marrow carbonic anhydrase activity. TC inhibited arginase activity significantly (P<.05) comparable to hydroxyurea.

Conclusion: The results demonstrate Terminalia catappa extract as an erythropoietic agent that supports normal erythroid differentiation in vivo in phenylhydrazine- induced anemic mice in a synergistic fashion.


Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Values at Moderate Altitude in a Low-Income Population

Jean Bosco Gahutu

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2013/3530

Aim: To illustrate haematological adaptation to moderate altitude in Rwanda.

Study Design: A population-based cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at moderate altitude (1,649-1,768 m) among students of the National University of Rwanda and blood donors from Buhanda, Ruhango and Nyaruteja centres, from August to December 2011.

Methods: Healthy volunteers (238 males and 106 females, age range: 18-40 years) were recruited in the study. Complete blood count was performed on a Coulter AcT 5diff and for some samples on a Sysmex KX-21N automated haematology analyzer.

Results: Results (mean ± SD) were: erythrocyte count: males: 5.28 ± 0.53 X 1012/L, females: 4.72 ± 0.63 X 1012/L; haemoglobin concentration: males: 160 ± 16 g/L, females: 140 ± 18 g/L; haematocrit: males: 45 ± 4 %, females: 40 ± 5 %. The differential leukocyte count showed eosinophilia (4%) and increased lymphocytes (44%).

Conclusion: The values for erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, erythrocyte indices and leukocyte count are comparable to sea level values. The fact that haemoglobin concentration is not low as is the case in low-income populations living at sea level can be attributed to adaptation to moderate altitude.


Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Rh Antigens, Phenotype & Probable Genotype in the Population of Gwalior and Chambal Region, Central India

Dharmesh Chandra Sharma, Sachin Singhal, Sunita Rai, Sudha Iyenger, Satya Sao, Bharat Jain

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 29-43
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2013/4616

Introduction: Rhesus (Rh) antigen was discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and Wiener. In later years, because of its immunogenecity along with ABO grouping, RhD antigen testing was made mandatory before issuing a compatible blood. Presently there are five major antigens i.e. D, C, E, c and e in Rh blood group system.

Aims: To know the distribution of major Rh antigens, its phenotype and most probable genotype in the population of Gwalior region i.e. Central India.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Blood Bank, Department of Pathology, Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior, India from 1st October 2008 to 30th September 2010.

Methodology: The distribution of Rh antigens, its phenotype and most probable genotype was studied in 1000 samples collected from blood donors, blood recipients and other patients. Samples were tested for ABO blood group and five major antigens of Rh system by tube agglutination method /or by gel technology.

Results: Out of 1000 samples studied, the incidence of RhD was 91.6% and only 8.4% samples were negative for D antigen (p=.000005). The Incidence of other Rh antigens i.e. C, E, c and e was 84%, 25.6%, 58.3% & 78.5% respectively (p=.000005) Most common phenotype in RhD positive samples were DCCee (41%) and in RhD negative it was dccee (5.6%) (p= .000005). Eleven samples (1.1%) were negative for antithetical antigens E & e. Most probable genotype in order of frequency was DCe/DCe (R1R1)-41%, DCe/Dce (R1R0)-25.5% & dce/dce (rr)-5.6% (p= .000005).

Conclusion: Like previous studies, our study also concluded that there is a wide range of racial and geographical variation in the distribution of Rh phenotype and genotype. The Rh blood group system has vital role in population genetic study, in resolving medico legal issues and more importantly in transfusion practice.