Open Access Review Article
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique subset of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the class I-like non-polymorphic histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, CD1d. They express both innate and adaptive immune cells’ surface receptors, but act more like cells of the innate immune system. Although iNKT cells represent a relatively small population of T lymphocytes, they can rapidly produce copious amounts of cytokines after activation which can polarize different axes of the immune response. Many glycolipid agonists have been discovered of which the marine sponge-derivative called α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) is a potent ligand for iNKT cells. iNKT cells have been described by many researchers as a critical immunotherapeutic target characterized by having tumor-suppressive potential. However, their actual role in immune responses is still unclear. In addition, the need for appropriate preclinical models that mimic human diseases is important for better understanding the iNKT cell biology. This review describes the characteristics of iNKT cells and their role in immunotherapy in cancers such as multiple myeloma and how they can interact with the components of the neighbouring environment.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: is to correlate the atrial function with the level of oxidative stress marker (Glutathione) in children with Iron deficiency anemia (IDA).
Materials and Methods: Thirty children with IDA and 20 healthy children had serum Ferritin, total blood Glutathione level and studied with conventional trans-thoracic 2-D echocardiography, Tissue Doppler (TDI) and Speckle Tracking Strain (STI) analysis.
Study Design: A case–controlled study
Place and Duration of Study: Pediatric Outpatient Clinic; Pediatric Hematology Unit; Pediatric Cardiology Unit; Pediatric Department; Faculty of Medicine; Tanta University Hospital; Egypt. The study was conducted between January; 2012 to December; 2012.
Results: Children with IDA had significantly low Glutathione [4.63 ±3.4 ng/ml] (P =.013) and Ferritin [11.88 ±5.3 ng/ml] (P < .0001) levels than that observed in the control group. There was no significant increase in LA dimension and volume (minimum) [31± 27 ml] (P = .433), by M-mode but there was significant decrease in e/a ratio assessed by tissue Doppler in IDA patients [1.29 ±0.5] than in controls [1.6±0.7] (P = .038). There were significant decrease in LA velocity (P = .02) and increase in RA velocity (P = .04) compared to left atrial and atrial septal velocity and insignificant increase in left atrial velocity compared to atrial septal velocity. There was no significant correlation between Glutathione level and echo-Doppler parameters of atrial function (P >.05), but there was significant negative correlation between Hemoglobin% and atrial septal velocity (P < .05).
Conclusion: IDA is associated with diastolic dysfunction. Tissue Doppler and STI were more sensitive than conventional echocardiography in detection of subclinical structural and functional changes due to hemodynamic abnormality in children with IDA.