Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Human Herpes Virus 8 among Blood Donors in National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

K. Wooi Seong, M. Nor Asiah, M. Normi, M. Y. Aliza, A. Norhanim, A. Yasmin, A. T. Nur Syimah, K. Roslaili, M. Y. Narazah

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 149-159
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/9537

Aims: In South East Asia, there is no regional or local HHV-8 seroprevalence data on blood donors. Thus this study was aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HHV-8 among blood donors in National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur (NBCKL) and to test its association with donor socio demographic and transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) seropositivity.

Study Design:  A cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur (NBCKL). Duration of the study from January 2008 to June 2009.

Methodology: A total of 761 serum samples were collected of which 670 from blood donors who were non-reactive for TTIs while 91 were from blood donors who were reactive for TTIs were tested for HHV 8 using BIOTRIN HHV-8IgG EIA kit and BIOTRIN HHV-8IgG Immuno fluorescent assay (IFA). 

Results: The HHV-8 seroprevalence among blood donors in NBCKL was 1.3% (10/761) of which 0.9% (6/670) among healthy blood donors and 4.4% (4/91) among TTI seropositive donors. TTI seropositivity (p=0.023) and gender (p=0.018) shows a significant risk factors contributed to HHV-8 seropositivity. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C were associated with an increased risk of HHV-8 seropositivity (OR 6.8; 95% CI, 0 to 0.2 and OR 10.0; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.4 respectively).

Conclusion:  HHV-8 has a low seroprevalance among blood donors in the NBCKL with a male predominance. A donor with seropositivity for TTI, is associated with a higher risk HHV-8 seropositivity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Plasmodium and Salmonella Infections among Pregnant Women with Fever, Presented to Three Hospitals in Ogun and Lagos State, South-West Nigeria

Emmanuela Tochukwu Chukwuma, Gloria Iyabo Olasehinde, S. O. Taiwo, B. T. Adekeye

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 160-167
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/8690

Aims: The study was undertaken to establish prevalence of plasmodium and salmonella infections among pregnant women manifesting fever, presented to three hospitals in Lagos and Ogun state, Nigeria. To determine the rate of co-infection with respect to the use of widal test and stool culture as diagnostic tools for typhoid fever and To characterize and Identify the S. typhi isolates associated with co-infection.                                                                                             

Study Design: This research is Cross sectional.  Pregnant women who were manifesting fever presented to two hospitals in Ogun State and Lagos State, Nigeria were tested by two diagnostic methods each for Plasmodium and Salmonella infections.                                                                                                                                  Place and Duration of Study: Covenant university Canaan Land, Microbiology Laboratory between October 2012 and June 2013.

Methodology: Three hundred and fifty pregnant women who came to the hospitals with clinical signs including fever were selected by random sampling. They were tested for plasmodium infection and for salmonella infections. For plasmodium, the lateral flow test cassettes were used to test for the different species. The blood smears were also viewed microscopically while for salmonella infections both Widal test and culture of stools were used.

Results: Of the 350 samples, 10(3%) tested positive for plasmodium. 6(2%) were positive for salmonella while 5(1%) women had both plasmodium and salmonella infections. All the 10 cases of plasmodium infections were caused by P. falciparum and all the 6 cases of salmonella infections were due to S. typhi. Fifty healthy pregnant women screened by same methods as controls were negative for both plasmodium and for salmonella.

Conclusion: Infection by P. falciparum and S. typhi and their co-infection are among causes of fever in pregnant women in Nigeria.


Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Obesity and Family History of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Serum Ferritin and Insulin Levels in Young Adults

H. V. Shetty, S. M. R. Usha, N. Chandrika, K. S. Manjula

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 168-177
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/8833

Aim: Obesity and family history of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus are the major risk factors for the development of type 2 Diabetes mellitus in youth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between serum ferritin and insulin resistance in healthy young obese with and without family history of type 2 Diabetes mellitus.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital, Kambipura, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, for eight months period in the year 2012.

Material and Methods:  A small group study was undertaken in 90 students who were in the age group of 17-22 years. The study population was divided into two groups based on body mass index, Group I /non-obese group (n=46) and Group II/ overweight & obese group (n=44). Fasting and postprandial blood glucose, Serum ferritin, serum insulin and lipid parameters were estimated and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated for all the ninety students.

Results: Statistically significant differences in Total cholesterol (p=0.05), Triglycerides (p=0.05), serum insulin (p<0.01) and HOMA (p<0.01) were observed between the two groups. Mean serum ferritin values were increased in group II (overweight/obese) but not statistically significant. Serum insulin and serum ferritin showed a significant correlation with BMI for the whole study group.

Serum ferritin and insulin levels significantly correlated with waist to hip ratio in students with family history of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus as against individuals without family history. 59% of the obese students with family history of Diabetes mellitus had insulin resistance.

Conclusion: Our study has shown that a significant proportion of obese students with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus had insulin resistance and elevated levels of ferritin, highlighting the importance of early screening for obesity associated co morbidities like metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases in these individuals.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy Duration on Reticulocyte Count and Red Cell Indices

Chizoba Okechukwu Okeke, Grace I. Amilo, Martin Ifeanyichukwu, Ogochukwu M. T. B. Ochiabuto, Anulika O. Onyemelukwe, Sylvester Nnaemeka Ibekailo

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 187-197
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/10243

Aim: To determine the Red cell indices and Reticulocyte count values in HIV-positive patients under antiretroviral treatment and those not under antiretroviral treatments with varying durations of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatments.

Study Design: Case-control study.

Place and duration of Study:  The study was carried out at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Nigeria from March to August 2013.

Methodology: 181 subjects were recruited consisting; Sixty (30 males and 30 females) HIV subjects under antiretroviral therapy (ART) with an HIV infection and ART duration of <1–5 years, >5 –8 years and >8–17 years; Sixty (25 males and 35 females) HIV subjects not under ART (non-ART) with an infection duration of <1–3 years, >3–6 years and >6–11 years; and Sixty-one (31 male and 30 female) apparently healthy seronegative control subjects. The Reticulocytes count, Packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (HGB), Red blood cell count (RBC), Mean cell volume (MCV), Mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), Mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of the study subjects were determined.

Results: MCV and MCH for ART and non-ART subjects were significantly increased compared with control group (P<.05) and the differences with varying durations of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy were not significant (P>.05). Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the mean HGB, RBC, MCHC of ART and non-ART compared with control (F=8.51; 133.85; 33.32; P<.05 respectively) and their differences with varying durations of infection and antiretroviral therapy were not significant (P>.05). MCV were significantly higher in ART compared with non-ART (P<.05).

Conclusion: There is no significant variation in Red cell indices and Reticulocyte count values in HIV patients with differences in duration of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy.


Open Access Minireview Article

Bendamustine for Relapsed and Refractory Hodgkin Lymphomas: Four Cases and a Review of the Literature

Semra Paydas

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 178-186
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/8834

Aims: The management of relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma is challenging and new choices are needed. Brentuximab vedotin and bendamustine are two effective drugs in these cases. The aim of this study is to present the response to bendamustine after brentuximab failure.

Study Design: Retrospective study evaluating the response to bendamustine in four cases with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

Place and Duration of Study: Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine Department of Oncology, between 2012 and 2014.

Methodology: Clinical and metabolic responses to bendamustine in four cases with relapsed refractory Hodgkin lymphoma were evaluated. Informed consent was obtained from the patients. Bendamustine was used in four cases with very refractory Hodgkin lymphoma after Brentuximab failure. The dosage was 120 mg/M2 for two consecutive days in 4 weeks, without growth factor support.

Results: Four cases with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma were treated with bendamustine after brentuximab vedotin failure. Complete metabolic response was documented in two cases,one case did not respond and only short duration of response was determined in one case.

Conclusion: Bendamustine is an effective and cost-effective choice in cases with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma after brentuximab vedotin failure. However response is of short duration and definitive treatment must be performed as soon as possible.