Open Access Original Research Article

Antisickling Activity and Membrane Stabilizing Effect of Anthocyanins Extracts from Adansonia digitata L. Barks on Sickle Blood Cells

P. T. Mpiana, F. S. Misakabu, D. S. T. Tshibangu, K. N. Ngbolua, D. T. Mwanangombo

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 198-212
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/10539

Background: Parts of baobab tree (Adansonia digitata) including especially the barks are commonly used for their medicinal properties.

Aims: The aim of this work is to evaluate the antisickling activity of baobab tree barks, which are used in Congolese traditional medicine to manage Sickle Cell Disease.

Study Design: Baobab tree barks was extracted with water by maceration. Phytochemical tests were conducted with standard procedures. Antisickling activity and  the minimum concentration of extract required to normalize sickled cells was determined  by Emmel test.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was done at department of chemistry, Science Faculty, University of Kinshasa (DR Congo), between November 2012 and February 2013.

Methodology: The barks collected from Adansonia digitata were dried and powdered. A chemical screening was perform and extraction of anthocyanins done. Antisickling activity was evaluated by Emmel test, membrane stability by osmotic fragility test and Fe3+ evolution by following solution absorbance at 630nm. The rate of sickle cell shape normalization was determined at different plant aqueous extract concentrations in order to determine the minimal concentration of extract required to normalize sickle cells. The shape modification was quantitatively evaluated from the values ​​of parameters such as surface, radius and perimeters of sickle blood cells before or after treatment with plant extract using Motic software.

Results: The aqueous extract of Adansonia digitata showed an antisickling activity with a maximal normalization rate of 65.7% and a minimal concentration required to normalize sickled cells of 5.0mg/mL. The cell surface, perimeter and radius were significantly different before and after treatment with plant extract. The chemical screening showed the presence of polyphenols among which anthocyanins. The biological activity of this plant would be due to these pigments. The anthocyanins extract have also shown a stabilization effect on sickle blood red cells membranes and a reduction of methemoglobin to hemoglobin effect

Conclusion: The results obtained show significant antisickling activity of Adansonia digitata barks thus justifying the use of this plant by traditional healers in Congolese traditional medicine in the management of  Sickle Cell Disease.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Certain Blood and Biochemical Changes of Nile Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Exposed to Mercuric Chloride with Particular Reference to Erythrocyte Morphological Anomalies

Wafaa Abdou Mohamed Mohamed

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 222-234
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/11214

Sub-lethal toxicity of mercuric chloride (0.0002, 0.002, 0.02mg/L) in Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) after long-term (14 days) of exposure in the present study was investigated by measurement of some selective hematological and biochemical parameters with respect to erythrocyte morphological alterations. Experimental fish were set up with three groups for each concentration, plus the control group. Blood samples were collected from five individuals for each concentration after 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), total platelets count, total white blood cell count (WBC) and differential leukocyte counts (neutrophil, eosinophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophils). Fish exposed to 0.02mg/L Hg showed a significant decrease in RBC count, Hb, MCHC and platelets number than control groups (P<0.05) with moderate elevation in PCV, MCV, WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil, lymphocyte, glucose and cortisol levels compared with the control groups (P<0.05). However, fish exposed to the other two low concentrations showed no toxic effects. Hg at the concentrations studied was toxic to Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) at the higher dose only (0.02mg/L) after long term exposure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Blood Donors at the Blood Bank of Medical College of Gwalior: A 5 Year Study

Dharmesh Chandra Sharma, Sunita Rai, Savita Bharat, Sudha Iyenger, Shruti Gupta, Satya Sao, Bharat Jain

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 235-246
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/11193

Introduction: Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTIs) are a major problem associated with blood transfusion. Accurate estimates of risk of TTIs are essential for monitoring the safety of blood supply and evaluating the efficacy of currently employed screening procedures.

Aims: To determine the prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors in greater Gwalior region and its surrounding areas i.e. central India and its comparison with other relevant studies.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out at Blood Bank, Department of Pathology, Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior, India from January 2009 to December 2013 (5 year study).

Methodology: Total 67,123 blood units collected from blood donors were tested for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) i.e. HIV I & II, HBV, HCV,VDRL and Malaria parasite at Blood Bank as per guidelines of World Health Organization (WHO) for Asia Pacific region and Food and Drug Administration, Government of India.

Results: Out of 67,123 blood units studied, voluntary units were 61309(91.3%) and replacement units were 5823 (8.7%). In the present study total TTIs positive units were 2747 (4.09%) (p=0.000005). Amongst them HBV were 2360 (3.51%) (p=0.000005), HIV positive units were 91(0.13%), HCV were 161 (0.24%), VDRL were 114 (0.17%) and Malaria 21 (0.03%).

Conclusion: Our study concluded that amongst all the TTIs in the blood donors in Gwalior and its surrounding area, seroprevalence of HBV was significantly higher than other infections. It is also higher than similar studies conducted in other parts of India.


Open Access Original Research Article

Sex Related Assessment and Differentiation of Atherogenic Risk Factors

Jaspinder Kaur, Sargun Singh, Kawaljit Kaur

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 247-261
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/11306

Aims: Atherosclerosis is latent precursor of clinical cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to assess modifiable and non-modifiable atherogenic risk factors in both sexes.

Study Design: Cross sectional design.

Place and Duration of Study: It was conducted at Exservicemen Contributory Health Scheme (ECHS) Polyclinic, Sultanpur Lodhi, Kapurthala, Punjab, India from June, 2013 to Oct, 2013.

Methodology: This study was undertaken to assess age, education, employment, socioeconomic status, physical activity, body mass index, dietary habits, family history, sleep, stress, dysglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia as determinants of atherogenic risk factors. The level of significance was defined by P<.05 with Chi Square test.

Results: All patients (N=351) were divided into male (49.58%) and female (50.42%) cohorts. A statistically significant males (45.41%; P<.001) were found >65 years old and females (43.51%; P<.001) in 51-65 years. Males had significant higher literacy (55.19%; P<.001) and employment status (55.75%; P<.001). Females were reported with significant positive family history (40.12%; P<.01), stress (25.99%), sleep inadequacy (28.82%; P<.001), sedentary lifestyle (83.62%; P<.001), and vegetarianism (74.02%; P<.01). Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in females (19.78%) than males (14.95%). The higher prevalence of hypertension (females: 49.16%; males: 48.28%), obesity (females: 23.72%; males: 17.24%), dysglycaemia (females: 25.99%; males: 22.42%) was recorded in females; and dyslipidemia (males: 29.32%, females: 23.17%) in males.

Conclusion: Females were reported with significantly higher frequencies of atherogenic risk factors which make them highly susceptible to cardiovascular events than males. Hence, sex should be considered to assess and differentiate atherogenic risk factors, and when health professionals recommend lifestyle modifications.


Open Access Minireview Article

Primary Testicular Lymphoma: A Study of 11 Cases

H. Regaieg, N. Ben Sayed, Y. Ben Youssef, B. Achour, S. Hmissa, H. El Omri, A. Khelif

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 213-221
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/10504

Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) is an uncommon extranodal presentation constituting 1% of all NHL and 5% of all testicular neoplasm. The objective of our study was to identify the presenting signs and symptoms, treatment and outcome of patients with testicular lymphoma diagnosed at the Hematology department of Farhat Hached University Hospital from 1997 to 2007 and to perform bibliography review about this pathology.

Eleven cases were identified; the median age was 61 years (range:31-83). All patients presented with testicular and scrotal swelling or mass. B symptoms (recurrent fever of>38ºC temperature, night sweets and unexplained weight loss of>10% of the body weight within six months prior to diagnosis) were present in 6 patients. According to the "Ann-Arbor staging system", 7 patients were classified stage IE( involving a single lymph node region (I) or single extralymphatic organ or site) and IIE (two or more involved lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm (II) or localized involvement of an extralymphatic organ or site), 4 patients were classified stage IVE (the presence of diffuse or disseminated involvement of one or more extralymphatic organs (e.g., liver, bone, marrow, lung), with or without associated lymph node involvement). International Prognostic index was low (<2) in 7 patients and high (≥2) in 4 cases. Orchidectomy was performed in all cases. Eight patients received chemotherapy based on COP (2cases), mini CEOP (3 cases), ACVBP (2 cases). Eight patients received central nervous system prophylaxis in the form of intrathecal methotrexate. Radiation at the dose of 40Gy was given to 3 patients. Three patients achieved complete remission. Two patients relapsed. The median survival was 3 months (range: 1 week-107 months).

Testicular lymphoma is a rare and deadly form of extra nodal lymphoma, randomized prospective treatment trials may help to establish better treatment strategies.