Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Thrombolytic Activity of Five Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants: Potential Source for Thrombolytic Compounds

S. M. Moazzem Hossen, Irfan Newaz khan, Md. Mominul Islam Sarkar, Md. Anwar Jahid

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 262-269
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/9623

Aim: The aim of our project work was to assess the thrombolytic activity of five common Bangladeshi plant extract in different solvent. Five plants are Geodorum densiflorum (Shankhamul), Pistia stratiotes (Topa Pana), Smilax zeylanica (Kumarilata), Pandanus foetidus (Keya) & Tabernaemontana coronaria (Tagar). Plants were collected and air dried separately for three weeks. They were ground into a coarse powder. Cold extractions were performed for all plants by using different solvents.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, University of Chittagong and University of Science and Technology Chittagong, November, 2013.

Methodology: Fresh blood was collected from healthy individuals ten volunteers (n=10). Blood was allowed to form clots in a pre-weighed sterile micro-centrifuge eppendorf tubes. After clot serum was removed and blood clot was weighed then blood clot was allowed to lysis by streptokinase. After lysis fluid was removed and the remaining of blood clot was again weighed along with the tube. Percentage of blood clot lysis was calculated on the basis of the weight difference. Weight difference of tubes obtained by weighing before and after clot lyses of blood. % clot lysis=(Weight after clot lysis/ Weight of clot before lysis)×100. This method was repeated for all extracts.

Result: Among the herbs studied Pandanus foetidus (C), Pandanus foetidus (PE), Smilax zeylanica (E) and Pistia stratiotes-Root (M) showed significant % of clot lysis 47.54%   41.49%, 43.35% and 35.85% respectively with reference to standard, streptokinase (70.24%).

Conclusion: These extracts lyse the blood clots In-vitro, however, we need to know In-vivo clot dissolving property. Further systemic research on these plants and may be a potential source of thrombolytic agent in future.


Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Some Hematological Abnormalities among HIV Positive Patients on Their First Visit to a Tertiary Health Institution in Ethiopia; A Cross Sectional Study

Zelalem Addis, Gashaw Yitayew, Belaynesh Tachebele

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 270-278
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/11137

Aim: The main objective of this study was to identify the magnitude of hematological abnormalities among HIV patients on their first visit to antiretroviral treatment (ART) centers.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 189 HIV positive patients, visiting University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia. Blood sample was analyzed for hematological parameters and CD4 count. Frequencies (%), mean (SD) or median (IQR) were used to summarize data according to the type of variable. Independent sample t-test and chi-square test were used as appropriate and in all cases P<0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 33.2 (±9.3) years. The prevalence of anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were 42.3%, 4.8% and 12.7% respectively. Immunosupression was found in 83.1% of the individuals. CD4 count with leucopenia (P<0.0001) was the factor that showed significant association.

Conclusion: The prevalence of hematological abnormalities in this study was high and nearly half of the patients were eligible to start antiretroviral therapy. Researches that explore the clinical presentations of HIV positive patients on their first visit to ART centers and hematological changes after initiation of treatment need to be conducted.


Open Access Original Research Article

Universal Leukoreduction Decreases the Incidence of Febrile Nonhemolytic Transfusion Reactions to Cellular Blood Components: A 5 Year Study

Dharmesh Chandra Sharma, Sunita Rai, Shruti Gupta, Bharat Jain

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 279-288
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/11610

Background: Febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs) are common complications associated with allogenic transfusion and it is caused by the leucocytes and cytokines released by leucocytes during storage of blood/ blood components. These reactions are generally not life threatening, but they are expensive in their management, evaluation, and associated blood-product wastage. 1st log prestorage universal leukoreduction (ULR) i.e. removal of Buffy coat is a useful and effective procedure in developing countries to control FNHTRs significantly.

Aims and Objects: To know the efficacy of pre-storage 1st log universal leuckoreduction in controlling febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs).

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out at Blood Bank, Department of Pathology, G. R. Medical College, Gwalior from January 2009 to December 2013 (5years).

Materials and Methods: Study was divided into control group (Year: 2009) and study group (Years: 2010-13). 14,292 recipients in control group and 45,064 in study group were transfused with non-leukoreduced and prestorage 1st log leukoreduced blood/ blood components respectively. Usefulness of prestorage 1st log ULR over non-leukoreduced blood/ blood components was observed, compared and discussed.

Result: In the control group 610 (4.26%) out of 14,292 (p=0.0003) and in study group 381(0.84%) out of 45,064 (p=0.0003) recipients were reported to have FNHTRs. The comparative study showed significant reduction in FNHTRs from 4.26% to 0.84% (↓ 3.42%) (p=0.000001).

Conclusion: 1st log Universal Leukoreduction (ULR) is a better option over Selective Leukoreduction (SLR) to prevent FNHTRs and it also helps the transfusion services of under-resourced developing countries in many ways.

Open Access Original Research Article

Higher Ratio of Arterial vs Venous Thrombosis in Hemophilia A as Compared with Von Willebrand Disease

A. Girolami, E. Cosi, L. Sambado, V. Daidone, F. Fabris

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 289-298
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/11142

Objectives: to investigate the ratio between arterial and venous thrombosis in patients with Hemophilia A or B in comparison with that of patients with von Willebrand Disease.

Methods: analysis of a time unlimited survey of the literature together with an evaluation of personal records. Thrombotic events had to be proven by objective methods. Acquired forms were excluded. 222 patients were found to meet the inclusion criteria, 131 patients with Hemophilia A or B and 91 patients with von Willebrand Disease.

Results: The ratios between arterial and venous thrombosis resulted to be 3.75, 1.12, 2.54 and 1.75, for Hemophilia A, Hemophilia B, combined Hemophilia A and B and von Willebrand Disease, respectively. The difference between Hemophilia A and von Willebrand Disease was statistically significant.

Conclusions: The plasmatic defect present in the Hemophilias, especially in Hemophilia A, seems to protect more from venous rather than from arterial thrombosis. This pattern is less evident for von Willebrand Disease. The clinical significance and the pathogenetic implications of these findings are discussed.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Immunohistochemical Study of PRAME Expression in Non-hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Semra Paydas, Arbil Avci Acikalin, Melek Ergin, Berna Bozkurt Duman, Gulsah Seydaoglu

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 299-310
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/8832

Aim: Preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer-testis antigen with very low/no expression in normal tissues. PRAME is an important target for tumor immunotherapy. Prognostic and in some tumors predictive importance of this expression have been shown in some solid tumors. The aim of this study is to detect the prognostic and/or predictive value of PRAME expression in non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL).

Study Design: Retrospective clinico-pathological study.

Methodology: PRAME expression was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 62 cases with NHL. However statistical analysis was performed in 54 cases [33 with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 21 with indolent lymphoma (IL)] due to the low number of the other subtypes.

Results: PRAME expression was detected in 20 of the total 62 cases (32.3%). Nine of 33 cases with DLBCL, 7 of 21 cases with IL, 4 of 6 cases with T-NHL and both of the 2 cases of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Clinical variables including gender, stage, age, extranodal involvement and response to chemotherapy were not different in PRAME (+) and PRAME (-) cases. However PRAME (+) cases had longer PFS and OS than the PRAME (-) cases, however, no significant difference was found between groups in total. Furthermore, lymphoma subtype data indicated that while PRAME positivity was significantly associated with longer OS in cases with IL (p=0.049) but not in DLBCL cases (p=0.881). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that while response to chemotherapy was an independent risk factor, PRAME and NHL subtype were found not to be significant independent risk factors associated with the OS rate.

Conclusion: PRAME expression was found in one third of the cases with NHL and there was no difference in PRAME expression in indolent lymphomas and DLBCL. Although we did not find the prognostic importance of PRAME with NHL overall, lymphoma subtype data indicated that PRAME positivity was associated with OS. This may be due to the relatively low number of the cases and also lack of comparison with RT-PCR which is the most frequently used method in detection of PRAME expression.


Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Changes Associated With Hepatitis E Virus Seropositivity among Human and Animal Subjects in Plateau State, Nigeria

S. A. Junaid, S. E. Agina

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 311-321
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/10273

Aim: To investigate the haematological manifestations of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) seropositivity.

Study Design: Cross sectional study. We included 592 subjects in the study; (426 humans and 166 animals). Humans were categorized into 4 groups: apparently healthy (190), pregnant women (108), HIV positive patients (80), and animal handlers (48). The animals were made up of pigs (67), goats (43), sheep (19) and cattle (37).

Methodology: Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using ELISA technique. Human samples were analyzed using the Abacus Junior Auto Haematology Analyser while the animal Samples were analyzed using Mindray BC- 28000Vet Auto Haematology Analyser. Results obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 statistical software.

Results: Haematological manifestations of HEV seropositivity  revealed a significant decrease in Haematocrit (HCT) value among pregnant women (IgG; P=.008, 28.9±2.3 vs 36.5±1.7), while among apparently healthy subjects, results revealed a reduced Red Blood Cells (RBC) count (IgG; P=.003, 4.2±0.2 vs 4.9±0.2), Platelets (PLT) count (IgG; P=.013, 162.4±8.3 vs 205.4±14.6) and HCT (IgM; P=.011, 34.1±6.6 vs 40.9±0.4) value, but a raised granulocyte (GRA) count (IgM; P<.001, 11.0±6.9 vs 2.9±0.1; IgG; P=.006, 3.9±0.5 vs 2.3±0.1) was observed. Among animal subjects; PLT was significantly associated with a raised count (IgM; P<.001, 614.5±198.8 vs 328.5±14.7), while GRA recorded a decreased count (IgG; P=.023, 4.8±0.8 vs 9.0±0.8). With regards to animal species; raised platelet count (IgM; P=.01, 662.5±229.9 vs 349.5±25.4 and IgG; P=.001, 797.4±299.9 vs 344.8±23.2), as well as decreased granulocyte count (IgG; P=.006, P=4.7±0.8 vs 13.6±1.2) was associated with HEV seropositivity among pigs.

Conclusion: Data suggest that HEV Infection results in abnormal changes in some haematological parameters, warranting further attention and research. Haematological approaches should be considered in future studies and diagnosis of HEV infection.


Open Access Original Research Article

Immunological and Hematological Profiles of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment Followed at Institute Pasteur of Ivory Coast

A. F. J. Trébissou, C. C. A. Yapo-Crezoit, F. A. Yapo, A. Yéo, F. H. Yapi, J. A. Djaman

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 322-334
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2014/11109

Aims: The immune system and some of the organs of HIV positive patients may be subject of some disruptions caused by Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART). This study has been initiated in order to assess the impact of ART on the immunological and hematological parameters of People Living with HIV (PLHIV) followed at Institute Pasteur of Ivory Coast (IPIC). 

Methodology: This cross-sectional study took place from August 2012 to August 2013 on 45 HIV-positive patients under first line ART, aged from 19 to 63 years of both genders with 30 women and 15 men. Three therapeutic treatments have been used during the study and are: the determination of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and the blood cells count have been determined before the beginning of ART. Profiles for CD4+ and blood cells count were studied every 15 days (D15), 6 months (M6) and 12 months (M12) after taking ART. 

Results: This study showed that CD4+ T-lymphocytes count was lower at first than 200 cells/mm3, has increased significantly from (P< 0.0001) to values greater than 350 cells/mm3 and restored the level of hemoglobin to its standard values after one year of antiretroviral treatment. With the exception of the TDF+FTC+EFV, all therapeutic combinations showed a neutropenia and a macrocytosis. These anomalies could be related to the presence of lamivudine (3TC) in the therapeutic combinations. 

Conclusion: This study showed that the ART restore the immune system, but could be a cause of anemia in the long term. Consequently, their use by HIV positives patients should be accompanied by some anti-anaemic treatment.