Open Access Original Research Article

Newly Exposed Membrane Glycoprotein II β (CD41) on Activated Platelets has Higher Affinity for Plasma Fibrinogen that Blocks Anti-CD41 Binding

Anugya Bhatt, Lissy K. Krishnan

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/13147

The density of glycoprotein receptors on platelet membrane is dynamic and increase upon platelet activation by various stimulants to facilitate more ligand binding and functional outcome. Since CD41/61 receptor complex is responsible for platelet to platelet cross-linking, infusion of antagonists/antibodies against these molecules is considered an effective method for inhibiting platelet aggregation in certain clinical conditions. However, binding of anti-CD41 to the platelets stored in bags for transfusion was found to be lower. Probably, upon stimulation the newly exposed receptors may immediately bind fibrinogen and prevent access to the antibody. To prove this hypothesis, binding intensity of FITC-conjugated human fibrinogen to resting and stimulated platelets were compared using flow cytometry. In the presence of plasma fibrinogen, monoclonal antibody binding to the CD41 receptor decreased significantly, both onto the stored and agonist-activated platelets as compared to the resting cells. As compared to ADP-activated platelets, binding of anti-CD41 to thrombin-activated platelets was significantly lower. Variable binding intensity of anti-CD41 to platelets activated by different stimulants observed in this study allowed us to suggest that therapeutic antibodies also may not bind to platelets that are stimulated by strong agonists.  Our results signify the importance of validating such antibodies under conditions of stronger activation of platelets. We observed that more platelet microparticles (PMP) were shredded upon in vitro platelet activation by thrombin as compared to induction by ADP. However, fibrinogen did not bind to the shredded microparticles Therefore; PMP in circulation may not take part in pathological thrombus formation.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Probe into Protective Association of Haemoglobin Genotypes with Malaria Parasitaemia among Students of a University in Western Delta, Nigeria

F. D. Otajevwo, T. O. Enabulele

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 12-25
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/8923

Aim: This work was designed to investigate any possible protective association of haemoglobin genotypes with malaria parasitaemia among students of a private University in Western Delta.

Study Design: Whole blood samples were obtained from a cross section of students by simple random sampling method. Collected blood samples were dispensed into ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) containers which were appropriately labelled. Collected blood samples were tested for haemoglobin genotypes and malaria parasites by standard methods. Data obtained were statistically analysed.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Microbiology and Biotechnology laboratory of Western Delta University, Oghara, Nigeria between May, 2013 to October, 2013.

Methods: Venous blood (2ml volume) was obtained by venipuncture from 360 symptomatic and asymptomatic students made of 150(41.7%) males and 210(58.3%) females with a mean age of 23.5±8.5 years. Malaria parasite screening was done by both Plasmodium falciparum antigen rapid (Micropoint, USA) test and Giemsa staining. Haemoglobin genotyping was done by a modified cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) method.

Results: A total of 225(70.8%) students were infected with trophozoites and other forms of P. falciparum parasites of which 53.3% and 44.7% were infected females and males respectively. There was significant association between sex and malaria infection rates (P<0.05). Two hundred and forty (66.7%), 99(27.5%) and 21(5.8%) students were of HbAA, HbAS, and HbSS genotypes. Sixty five (18.1%) HbAA male and 99(27.5%) HbAA female students were infected with malaria parasites. Thirty nine (10.8%) and 21(5.8%) male HbAS and female HbAS students respectively were infected with malaria parasites. Eight (2.2%) and 7(1.9%) male HbSS and female HbSS students respectively were infected. Malaria infection rates among types were HbAA (45.6%), HbAS (16.7%) and HbSS (4.2%). Age groups 21-25 and 15-20 had the highest malaria infection rates and population of HbAA, HbAS and HbSS students while 41-45 group had the least. Chi square analysis showed that there was no significant association between male and female HbAA, HbAS, HbSS and malaria infection rates (HbAA X2 0.05,10= 7.786, HbAS X20.05, 10= 8.421, HbSS X20.05, 10= 4.1, P-value 0.05, 10 =18.307, Hence P>0.05).

Conclusion: Findings in this work are suggestive that Oghara town may be hyper endemic for malaria and this information may be useful to the University Health department as well as the relevant Delta State Health agencies for the necessary antimalarial therapy and prophylactic measures. Findings also indicate a high prevalence of haemoglobin genotype variants particularly heterozygous HbAS. This information can help in the formulation of genetic counseling policies for prospective couples in order to assist them make informed decisions before marriage. This will ultimately reduce the sickling gene pool amongst the study population and beyond. Results of this study also imply that there is no protection against malaria by any of the implicated haemoglobin genotypes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid Profile as a Marker of Pre-stage Cancer and Oral Cancer in Tobacco Users

D. Ayesha Thabusum, R. Sudhakara Reddy, T. Ramesh, N. Rajesh

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/14140

Aim: To investigate the serum lipid profile in conventional smokers, reverse smokers and tobacco chewers and smokers and chewers associated with precancer and oral cancer.

Study Design: A cross sectional longitudinal study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Oral medicine and Radiology, Vishnu dental college, Bhimavaram, between October 2011 and November 2013.

Methodology: A total of 100 subjects with age range of 20-80 years were included and divided into five groups with 20 subjects in each group. The subjects in Group 1 were Conventional smokers, Group 2 were Reverse smokers, Group 3 were Tobacco chewers, Group 4 were Smokers and chewers and Group 5 with no habit of tobacco usage. Serum lipid profile levels were estimated and analyzed for all the five groups.

Results: Total cholesterol (TC) and HDL were significantly reduced in all forms of tobacco abusers of oral precancer group. There was significant decrease of TC, HDL in conventional smokers (Group 1) and Reverse smokers (Group 2), significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL in tobacco chewers (Group 3) and smokers and chewers (Group 4) of oral cancer group compared with the controls. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL were much lower in the oral cancer group compared with the control. Although these parameters were low in the precancer group compared with the controls and triglycerides showed non –significant p value.

Conclusion: An inverse relationship was obtained between serum lipid levels and oral precancer and oral cancer subjects. Thus the serum lipid profile can be used as an indicator to reflect the initial changes occurring in neoplastic cells, thus substantiating their use as a diagnostic adjuvant in monitoring the oral precancer and oral cancer condition.


Open Access Original Research Article

AML with Additional Cytogenetic Abnormalities to t(8: 21) has Poorer Survival than that with Isolated t(8;21): A Retrospective Multicenter Cohort Study

Nahla Ahmad Bahgat Abdulateef, Manar Mohammad Ismail, Soha Aly Elmorsy, Aziza F. ALswayyed, Essam Hamed Abdou, Omima Elemam

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 36-46
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/15529

Aim of the Study: To investigate the poor prognostic factors incriminated in AML with t (8; 21), particularly additional cytogenetic findings, clinicopathological presentation and their impact on survival rate in Egyptian and Saudi patients.

Study Design: Patients were collected from three centers: 9 cases from King Abdullah Medical City in Makah, between 2010 and 2013, 16 from King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2007 and 2013 and 16 patients from National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt 2010 and 2013.

Methodology: We studied 41 cases with t (8; 21). Immunophenotyping was performed using BD- FACS System. Conventional karyotypic analysis was done using standard culturing and banding techniques. Clinicopathological and cytogenetic data were correlated with disease outcome.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between Egyptian and Saudi patients concerning the hematological parameters or immunophenotype markers expression, Thirty four (82.9%) out of 41 patients achieved complete remission. The follow up period for the whole group ranged from 2.1 to 170.3 weeks. The median survival was 146 weeks. The overall survival rate was 80% at one year and 70% at two years. Regarding the cytogenetic profile 33/41(80.5%) had isolated t(8;21) and 8 patients (19.5%) had a chromosomal aberration in addition to t(8;21); the commonest of which was + 8 that was found  in 5 patients. The median overall survival of those 8 patients was 28.4 compared to 146.7 weeks in cases with isolated t (8; 21) p=0.002. Also, they had a lower one year overall survival rate (44%) than those with isolated t (8; 21) (86%) and their two years overall survival was zero.

Conclusion: AML associated with additional cytogenetic abnormalities to t (8;21) has poorer survival than that with isolated t(8;21). Trisomy 8 is mostly incriminated for this being the most commonly encountered in this study.


Open Access Original Research Article

Blood Coagulation Tests and Platelets Counts in Diabetic Rats Treated with Ficus sur, Jatropha tanjorensis, Mucuna pruriens and Chromolaena odorata Leaf Extracts

Ijioma Solomon Nnah

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/14602

Aim: This study was designed to study the effects of leaves extracts of four indigenous Nigerian medicinal plants namely- Ficus sur, Jatropha tanjorensis, Mucuna pruriens and Chromolaena odorata on platelets counts and blood coagulation tests (bleeding and clotting times) in alloxan induced diabetic rats with a view to further assess their safety in the management of diabetes mellitus.

Design: Animal experiments were carried out on whole animals in the Physiology Laboratory of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

Methodology: Forty five diabetic rats were divided into 9 groups of 5 rats each (groups 2-9), while group 1 comprised of 5 normal rats. Treatment was assigned to each group with a specified extract and dosed. At the end of treatment period bleeding and clotting times as well as platelets counts was determined for each animal.

Results: All doses of the extracts significantly (P<.05) lowered the observed elevated platelets counts in the diabetic rats with 150 mg/kg of Ficus sur, Jatropha tanjorensis, Mucuna pruriens and Chromolaena odorata lowering elevated platelets by 48.50, 47.26, 62.15 and 32.54% respectively. Same dose increased bleeding time by 460.6, 431.8, 430.3 and 213% respectively. Clotting time was also raised by 86.8, 63.57, 48.06, and 43.41 respectively.

Conclusion: The results show that the leaf extracts of Ficus sur, Jatropha tanjorensis, and Mucuna pruriens contain principles with anti-haemostatic and fibrinolytic and could be of value in the prevention of blood coagulation diseases often associated with diabetes mellitus but leaves that of Chromolaena odorata for further evaluation.