Open Access Original Research Article

Microbicidal Activity of Neutrophils Isolated from HIV Patients

J. B. Borges, T. Sakurada Jr, N. C. S. Santana, N. A. Lima, S. Lautenschlaugher, A. R. T. Pupulin

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 101-108
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/16929

HIV infection is associated with a progressive loss of T cell functional capacity and reduced responsiveness to antigenic stimuli. Neutrophils are crucial cellular components of the innate immune system. Current study evaluates the functional activity of neutrophils isolated from HIV/AIDS patients with similar clinical laboratory parameters differing only in the use of antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Two patients HIV/AIDS patients, a female and a male, were selected for this study, based on clinical history, general physical examination and laboratory tests. Further, two apparently healthy volunteers of the same age and gender former de control group. Neutrophils isolated from human peripheral blood were placed in contact with the yeast in a proportion of 1:10 leukocytes for 1 hour. PMN Fluorescence was detected in FL1 on a flow cytometer and results were recorded as fluorescence intensity and percentage of positive cells in the sample. HOCl formation was monitored by spectrophotometry based on the resulting taurine chloramine-forming reaction of hypochlorous acid with taurine. The experiments revealed that patient I with HAART had a 17.3% lower response activity of neutrophils when compared with the control in the production of hypochlorous acid with PMA stimulation. Patient II, who did not use HAART, was 81% less active than the control in the production of hypochlorous acid. The two patients had similar clinical laboratory parameters differing only in the number of CD4 cells, which was higher in Patient II. Results show that the patient submitted to antiretroviral treatment had a better quality of functional response of neutrophils although with fewer CD4 cells.


Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups among Voluntary Blood Donors in Enugu

Ngwu Amauche Martina, Obi Godwin Okorie, Anigolu Miriam Obiageli, Eluke Blessing Chekwube

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 109-116
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/16278

Background: ABO and rhesus blood group study is very relevant to the blood transfusion services policy maker and clinicians. ABO and rhesus blood group are the most prevalent blood groups among so many other blood groups discovered.

Aims: The aim of this study was to find out the current distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among the blood donors in city of Enugu.

Study Design: Two hundred and ninety randomly selected male and female blood donors were grouped according to their ABO and Rh blood group.

Place and Duration of Study: Haematology and Immunology Department, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria: April 2012 to December 2012.

Methodology: Two hundred and ninety voluntary blood donors sample were grouped for ABO and Rhesus ‛D’ antigen by tile method.

Results: The result showed that blood group O and Rh ‛D’ positive has the highest frequency, there was no blood group AB in the study.

Conclusion: Blood group AB is completely absent in this study.


Open Access Original Research Article

Suitability of Lower K2 EDTA Sample Volumes for Absolute CD4 Count Enumeration by Flow Cytometric Technique

K. A. Fasakin, O. D. Ajayi, C. T. Omisakin, A. J. Esan

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 117-123
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/16338

Background: Incorrect blood sample volume-anticoagulant ratio has been the cause of both haematological and immunological errors especially when K3 EDTA-containing blood collection tubes were used. Lower whole blood sample volumes collected into 4.0 millilitres spray-dried K2 EDTA has been shown to overcome incorrect haematology results when analysed on automated haematology analyzers but there is no experimental evidence for the same in the CD4 count enumeration by flow cytometric technique.

Materials and Methods: 9.0 ml of whole blood was collected from each of fifteen retroviral and ten normal volunteers and aliquot into five different 4.0 ml plastic spray-driedK2 EDTA blood collection tubes containing 4.0, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5 ml respectively. Each well-mixed sample was analysed on Partec Cyflow counter within 4 hours of collection for absolute CD4+T lymphocyte count.

Results:  Both the reference sample volume 4.0 ml  and experimental lower sample volumes (2.0, 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5 mls) of retroviral volunteers in 4.0 ml plastic spray-driedK2 EDTA blood collection tubes gave comparable CD4 count results with percentage mean difference of 1.82%, -1.48%, 2.25% and 0% for 2.0 ml, 1.5 ml 1.0 ml and 0.5 ml respectively. Irrespective of sample volumes, the normal volunteers had higher CD4 count results. There was no statistically and clinically significant difference in the CD4 counts and the percentage mean difference were 0.4%, 0.17%, 1.00% and 0.23% for 2.0 ml, 1.5 ml, 1.0 ml and 0.5 ml respectively. The correlation (slope)and  modest logistic regression coefficient (R2) of experimental lower sample volumes of both retroviral and normal volunteers were between 0.9500 and 1.0000 showing excellent agreement in the CD4 counts of both reference and experimental sample volumes(p<0.01).

Conclusion: Quality CD4 count results can be obtained with a minimum sample volume of 0.5 ml in 4.0 ml spray-dried K2 EDTA vacutainer blood collection tubes both in HIV and healthy individuals with intact immune function.

Funding: This research did not receive any grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or non-profit sector.


Open Access Original Research Article

Hypertension in Children with Sickle Cell Disease: A Comparative Study from Port Harcourt, Nigeria

I. O. George, P. N. Tabansi, C. N. Onyearugha

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 130-134
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/17811

Background: Sickle cell anaemia is a chronic anaemia that is characterized by episodes of severe bone pain from blood vessels occlusion by sickled red blood cells when deoxygenated, and eventual end organ affectation and multi-organ failure. The aim of this study was to compare the arterial blood pressures of children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state with those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls and to identify those with hypertension.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Outpatient Paediatric Haematology Clinic of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital from January to March 2015. Blood pressure, weight and height were measured and a specific form was used to record data.

Results: There were a total of 50 children with sickle cell anaemia in stable state during the study period. Of these, 31 were male while 19 were females giving a Male: Female ratio of 1.6:1. All the patients had HbSS genotype. Most of them 22(44%) were between the ages of 5 and 10 years. The mean packed cell volume was 22.79±4.34. Majority of the patients had packed cell volume between 16 and 30. Most 41(82%) of them were underweight. The prevalence of hypertensive is 22%. Majority (82%) of them had low Body Mass Index.

Conclusion: There is no significant difference in the systolic blood pressure of children with sickle cell anaemia compared to age and sex matched controls. Hypertension appears to be frequently undiagnosed by paediatric clinicians. Early, appropriate diagnosis is important so as to establish effective treatment for abnormal blood pressure.


Open Access Minireview Article

Palliative Radiotherapy for Spinal Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Thalassemia Major

Feryal Karaca, Cigdem Usul Afsar, Fatma Sert, SebnemIzmir Guner, Vehbi Ercolak, Erkut Erkurt, Candas Tunali

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 124-129
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/17235

Introduction: Non-hepatosplenic Extramedullary Hematopoiesis (NHEMH) is seen as a compensation mechanism in the patients with hematologic dysfunction. Thalassemia is an autosomal recessive hematologic disorder. The tissue involvement is seen very rarely in thalasemia major.

Case: A 45-years old patient diagnosed with thalassemia major was presented in this case report. The patient had splenectomy after 12 years from diagnosis and he was followed with continuous blood transfusions. Due to the newly emerged chest pain and dyspnea, he was evaluated with computed tomography. The operation was done for paraspinal masses caused by NHEMH. But same complaints were seen after 5 years from the operation. Paraspinal and sacral recurrences were detected in screening examinations. External palliative radiotherapy (ERT) was given to the patient with 3000 cGy total doses. Both clinical and radiological response was obtained with ERT.

Conclusion: Radiotherapy might be considered as an efficient palliative treatment option for the thalassemia major patients with NHEMH masses recurring after operation.