Open Access Original Research Article

Blood Donors Status of HIV, HBV and HCV in Central Blood Bank in Tripoli, Libya

Basma Doro, Wajdi M. Zawia, Walid M. Ramadan Husien, Nagi Meftah Gerbil Abdalla, Adam M. Rifai, Enase Dourou, Fatma J. Amar, Abdulwahab N. Aboughress

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/20272

Background: Post transfusion infections such as hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus infection continues to be an important public health concern with regard to blood transfusion in Libya and in Africa. This concern is related to the screening test.

Objectives: The main aim of this study to investigate the blood donors samples for HIV, HBV and HCV infections in Tripoli-Libya, North Africa during the first five months of 2015.

Methods: The total of 686 blood samples obtained from healthy blood donors who attended Tripoli’s central blood bank, were tested for HBsAg, HCV and HIV using the VITROS® 3600 Immunodiagnostic System.

Results: From the 686 samples examined, the frequency of HBsAg positive cases was 0.8%, the number of anti-HBc positive samples was found to be particularly high in the age group 29 and 36 years (p = 0.0001). The number of anti-HBc positive samples was found to be particularly high in the age group 30-39 years (p=0.01). Most occupation that had positivity with anti-HBc and HBV-DNA were free workers and was less in students. Most positive cases were from east of Tripoli the capital (Tagora, Soq-Aljomaha).

Conclusion: The frequency of HBsAg positive blood donors and anti-HBc among this sample was 0.8% and 0.7% respectively, which is low compared with the international findings. The current study estimated the expected exclusion rate of anti-HBc and HBsAg positive donated blood, as this would be an important factor to consider before donation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Expression of Glucocorticoid Receptor Isoforms (a, β, γ, and p) in Egyptian Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia Patients

Nahla A. M. Hamed, Mohamed Aldefrawy, Dalia Elneely, Omar Ghallab, Beatrice Jepngetich

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/20213

Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance has been demonstrated in nearly 30% of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients even managed with high dosages GC. The biological effects of GC are mainly mediated through activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR). An insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying GC resistance is important to avoid GC treatment in patients contraindicated from steroid use. We aimed at determining glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms expression in adult ITP and its relation to glucocorticoid resistance. Thirty three ITP patients from the Hematology unit, Alexandria Main University Hospital were the subject of the study. They were subdivided into two groups (sensitive and resistant) according to their response to 4 weeks GC treatment. 15 healthy volunteers of matched age were also included. Glucocorticoid Receptor α, β, γ and p gene expression were measured in cases and controls by real time Polymerase Chain Reaction. The mean age value in GC sensitive, GC resistant and control group was 33.4±11.6, 38.1±12.3 and 31.7±5.8 years respectively. Statistically significant difference between GR alpha mRNA isoform and GRa/ GRβ ratio was detected between GC resistant and GC responsive group while GRb, GRγ and GRβ were insignificantly differed between groups. From this study, we concluded that study of GRa and GRa/ GRβ ratio is recommended early in ITP to avoid unnecessary glucocorticoid side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Some Fibrinolytic Parameters during Pregnancy in Northern Nigeria

Imoru Momodu, Olutayo Ifedayo Ajayi

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/18389

Aim: The study was undertaken to assess the fibrinolytic activity during pregnancy and to determine the effects of maternal age, gestation period and parity on fibrinolytic parameters in Northern Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: 150 pregnant and 100 non-pregnant women, aged 17-40 years, were recruited for the research in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano between August 2010 and October 2011. Blood samples collected were analysed for the plasma levels of fibrinogen, d-dimer and Fibrin Degradation Products (FDP) using standard laboratory methods.

Results: Pregnant women had significantly higher values of fibrinogen concentration, d-dimer  and FDP of 3.46±0.35 g/L, 0.78±0.82 µg/mL and 10.17±15.08 µg/mL respectively compared to 3.12±0.3g/L, 0.45±0.78 µg/mL and 2.8±7.63 µg/mL, in non-pregnant women  (P<0.05). D-dimer values for the first, second and third trimesters showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05) while fibrinogen levels showed no significant effects within the gestation period (P>0.05). Maternal age and parity had no significant influences on fibrinogen concentration, d-dimer and FDP levels (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Changes in fibrinolytic parameters in this study are associated with increased levels of fibrinogen, d-dimer and FDP during pregnancy, irrespective of maternal age and parity, and these changes can be linked to increased fibrinolytic activity during pregnancy. It is recommended that plasma fibrinogen, d-dimer and FDP levels be determined during pregnancy to prevent the risk of thrombosis that the pregnant women are prone to.


Open Access Original Research Article

Hematological Status and Organs/Body-weight Parameters in Wister Rats during Chronic Administration of Cassia occidentalis

Eustace B. Berinyuy, Bashir Lawal, Amuzat A. Olalekan, Ibrahim A. Olalekan, Abubakar A. Yusuf, Sani Sakpe, Prince C. Ossai

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/22021

Background: Cassia occidentalis has been used in traditional medicine since prehistoric times and it’s now known to be a natural medicine with many beneficial effects,

Objective: The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of methanol extract from this plant on haematological parameters in rats.

Methodology: A total of ten (10) white albino rats with average weight of 140±2.50 g were grouped into 2 groups of 5 animals each. Group 1 rats serve as control group, while group 2 was treated with 600 mg/kg of Cassia occidentalis, for 30 days. The haematological parameters were determined using the automated haematologic analyzer SYSMEX KX21, using standard techniques. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and the level of significance was at P<0.05.

Results: Showed that administration of the plant extract at dose of 600 mg/kg body weight did not produce any significant effect (P>0.05) on the RBC Hb, MCV, MCH, RCD width-cv and RCD width-sd but cause significant decrease and increase in HCT and MCH-C respectively compare to control rats. The extract also increased the WBC count and LY count but decrease the mid cell total count and granulocyte compared to the control rats. The extract also decrease platelate count and plateletecrit but had no significant effects on mean platelate volume and platelete distribution weight. However, the body weight gain and relative organ weight ratios were not significantly different from those of the control rats.

Conclusions: In conclusion, administration of methanol extracts of C. occidentalis at 600 mg/kg investigated has brought about alterations in the WBC and Ly among thrombocytic indices, platelate count and plateletecrit among leucocytic indices and cause alteration to only HCT and MCH-C among the erythrocytic lineage. This may be an indication of local systemic toxicity.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anti-erythrocyte Sickling Effect of Lunularic Acid of Natural Origin

K. N. Ngbolua, Rafatro Herintsoa, Rakotoarimanana Hajatiana, V. Mudogo, D. D. Tshilanda, D. S. T. Tshibangu, P. T. Mpiana

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/21718

Aims: To evaluate the antisickling activity of lunularic acid.

Study Design: Biological experiment in vitro (Emmet test), evaluation of cell morphological parameters such as radius, perimeter and surface.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, from February 2015 to June 2015.

Methodology: The antisickling activity is carried out in vitro in isotonic (NaCl 0.9%) and hypoxic conditions (Na2S2O5 2%) using Sickle red blood cells (RBCs) as model system. The RBCs phenotype were analyzed using a computer assisted image analysis program (Motic Images 2000, version 1.3; Motic China Group Co LTD) and statistical data analyses were processed using  Microcal Origin 8.5 Pro package software.

Results: The biological testing revealed that lunularic acid has antisickling activity (Normalization rate > 95% at 25 µg/ml). This phenolic acid acts by reducing the perimeter of sickle RBCs and by increasing their surface. The treated SS RBCs demonstrated a remarkable similarity to normal blood cells values of morphological parameters.

Conclusion: The naturally occurring lunularic acid could serve as promising lead compound candidate for improving the quality life of SCD patients.