Open Access Review Article

Cord Blood: A Review

Sunitha Dontha, Hemalatha Kamurthy, Nandakishora Chary Madipoju

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/22377

The blood collected from a new born baby umbilical cord is known as Cord blood. It is a rich source of hemotopoietic stem cells, used in the treatment of over 80 diseases like various cancers and blood, immune and metabolic disorders. Cord blood is collected from umbilical cord vein attached to the placenta after umbilical cord has been detached from new born. The cord blood is composed of all elements, found in whole blood like red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, platelets and hematopoietic stem cells. Cord blood which is collected is cryopreserved and is stored in cord blood bank for future transplantation.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on Hematological Inflammation Markers in Acne Vulgaris

Nilay Duman, Erol Uzunali, Vildan Manav

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/21905

Aim: The literature does not include sufficient data on the hematological inflammation markers in acne vulgaris. The present study aimed to investigate potential of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio, and mean platelet volume as inflammatory markers in acne vulgaris.

Study Design: This is a a case-control, comparative clinical study conducted with the approval of ethical review board.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Dermatology between March 2015 and July 2015.

Methodology: The study included 45 moderate/severe acne patients and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Demographic data, medical history were recorded. Laboratory parameters, including total leucocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet counts, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio, and mean platelet volume were retrospectively evaluated before treatment, and after 3-months of oral isotretinoin treatment. Parameters of the patient group (pre-treatment) and the control group, additionally pre-treatment and post-treatment parameters of the patient group were compared.

Results: The mean total leucocyte count (P < 0.001), neutrophil count (P < 0.001), and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.047) were significantly higher, and mean platelet volume (P < 0.001) was significantly lower in the patient group (pre-treatment) compared to the control group. Additionally, the mean post-treatment leucocyte count (P = 0.001), neutrophil count (P < 0.001), and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.001) were significantly lower compared to pre-treatment parameters.

Conclusion: Acne vulgaris is associated with systemic inflammation, and isotretinoin treatment has systemic anti-inflammatory effects. Especially, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio is indicative of systemic inflammation in acne, and may be used as a follow-up marker during treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of HIV Infection among Blood Donors at a Tertiary Care Centre in Gwalior, India

Dharmesh Chandra Sharma, Arun Jain, Poonam Woike, Sunita Rai, Lokesh Tripathi, Savita Bharat, Rajesh Gaur

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/21631

Background: Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTIs) threaten safety of the recipients and the community as a whole and are the subject of real concern worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which can affect people of any age group. It can be transmitted by sexual intercourse, sharing of needles, transfusion of blood and blood products and vertical transmission from mother to child. There’s no complete cure for HIV till date. Incidence among donors reflects the overall disease burden on the society.

Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among the voluntary blood donors  at blood bank, J.A hospital, Gwalior Madhya Pradesh, India for a period of  eleven years, i.e., from 2004 to 2014.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out at Blood Bank J.A Hospital & G.R Medical college Gwalior and seroprevalence of HIV infection among blood donors who donated blood from 2004-2014 at Blood Bank was compiled.

Results: Out of the total 1, 37,767 donors tested for HIV infection, 266 (0.19%) were found to be HIV sero-positive and prevalence difference of HIV positive according to the year 2004 to 2014 were found to be significantly different. (p=0.000002).

Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV was 0.19% among blood donors of Gwalior region and showed decline pattern from 2004 to 2014.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Blood Wastage Rate in a Sub-Saharan African Hospital Based Blood Bank

Fasola Foluke Atinuke, Shokunbi Wuraola Adebola, Kotila Taiwo Rachael

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/22739

Background / Aims: Efforts are put into making blood safe for the recipient and non-injurious to the donor, and to avoid wastage of blood but blood is oftentimes wasted. This pilot study assessed the rate and reasons for blood wastage in the hospital blood bank of a developing country.

Methods: Questionnaires were administered to doctors from paediatric wards to assess the pattern of blood use and the response of the blood bank to their requests. The blood bank records were also examined for discarded blood units and reasons for discarding were sought. A wastage rate was calculated

Results: The volume of blood requested for ranged from 60 mls to 420 mls. The minimum volume of blood supplied was either 250 mls of packed cells or 500 mls of whole blood. Residual blood was either discarded or returned to the blood bank. Of 5,797 safe blood units for transfusion, 106 units were discarded giving a wastage rate of 1.8%.

Conclusion: The rate of blood wastage might have been underestimated because of substandard record keeping. The wastage of blood through supply of excess blood to paediatric patients was highlighted. The aliquot of blood into 2-4 satellite blood bags at the production unit will greatly reduce wastage.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Profile of Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Methanol Root Bark Extract of Cussonia arborea

Patrick Emeka Aba, Isaac Uzoma Asuzu

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2015/22725

The study was tailored to investigate changes in all haematological parameters of diabetic rats treated with methanol root bark extract of Cussonia arborea. A total of 72 male albino wistar rats assigned into 6 groups of 12 rats per group were used. Groups 1-5 were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate at the dose of 160 mg/kg while group 6 rats were not made diabetic. Diabetes was established by determination of fasting blood sugar above 126 mg/dl after which the rats in groups 1-4 were treated with 62.5, 125, 250 mg/kg of the extract and 2 mg/kg glibenclamide respectively while groups 5 and 6 rats received 10 ml/kg distilled water each to serve as negative and positive controls respectively. All treatments were through the oral route daily for 84 days. Red blood cell (RBC),white blood cell (WBC), differential white blood cell counts, packed cell volume (PCV) haemoglobin (Hb), total, conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin values were determined on days 28, 56 and 84 post treatment while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were calculated. The results indicate that administration of 125 mg/kg bw of the extract to the diabetic rats, significantly (p<0.05) increased RBC, PCV, Hb, MCV and conjugated bilirubin levels and significantly (p<0.05) decreased, total bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin values when compared to the diabetic untreated group. There were no significant changes in the total white blood cell counts across the groups. It was therefore concluded that treatment of diabetic rats with methanol root bark extract of C. arborea at 125 mg/kg improved red blood cell values with no adverse effects on white blood cell parameters.