Open Access Original Research Article

Progesterone and 17β-Estradiol Levels during Normal Pregnancy and the Puerperium among Women Attending a Tertiary Health Facility Clinic in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

B. O. Oluwatayo, M. I. Ebomoyi, L. F. O. Obika, L. A. Okeke

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/22508

Introduction: Progesterone and Estrogen are the chief pregnancy hormones. Their levels increase during pregnancy to aid successful maintenance of pregnancy, which depends on maternal tolerance of the fetal semi allograft.

Aim: To determine levels of progesterone and 17β-estradiol, at different trimesters during normal pregnancy and the puerperium, which may be used as baseline data for Nigerian women.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the antenatal clinic of Bingham University Teaching Hospital Jos, from April, 2011 to August, 2012.

Methodology: A total of three hundred and thirty (330) apparently healthy women between the ages of 18 and 42 years (mean age, 27.88±4.9 years) were studied. The study included two hundred and ten (210) women selected at different trimesters of pregnancy, seventy (70) women at six weeks post partum and fifty (50) non pregnant women as controls. Blood pressure measurements were done using the Auscultatory technique with mercury Sphygmomanometer.  Hypertensive subjects were excluded. Serum progesterone and 17β-estradiol concentrations were measured by Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) on Elecsys 2010, Auto analyzer.

Results: Out of the 330 women included from the onset, 260 completed the procedures. The relationship between Age group and Parity versus Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-estradiol were found not to be significant (P > 0.05). However, the hormonal levels increased significantly (P = .000) from the first trimester (49.158±7.97 ng/ml to 142.21±73.194 ng/ml) to the third trimester (3121.24±2076.6 to 11648.58±8325 pg/ml) respectively. These values declined sharply during the 6 weeks post partum period to (0.344±0.213 ng/ml and 39.44±16.23 pg/ml) for both progesterone and 17β-estradiol. The post partum women and the control showed no significant difference (P =.281).

Conclusion: The levels of progesterone and 17β-estradiol increased progressively throughout pregnancy and declined sharply to levels lower than the non-pregnant state during the puerperium. The levels recorded in this study are significantly higher than earlier reports among the African - Americans and the Caucasians. Thus the data generated in this study may be used as baseline values for management of pregnant women in Nigeria.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Studies on the Possible Haematological Changes in Rats Administered Hibiscus sabdariffa Aqueous Extract

Patrick Emeka Aba, Parker Elijah Joshua, Charity Oli

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/23170

The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves is popularly consumed in the form of “Zobo” drink in Nigeria and it is assumed to have haematological benefits. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa leaves on possible changes in haematological parameters using rat model. Twenty (20) adult wistar albino rats were used for the study and were assigned into four groups of five (5) rats per group. The rats in groups 2-4 were orally administered aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa in increasing doses (200,400 and 600 mg/ kg b.wt.) for 21 days while group 1 rats received distilled water at 10 ml/kg to serve as the normal control. On the day 21, blood samples for the haematological analyses were collected into clean sample bottles containing ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) at 1 mg/ml of blood.  The results indicated that there were significant increases (p<0.05) in the Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration  of groups 2-4 rats administered 200, 400, 600 mg/kg b. w. of the extract respectively compared with that of the normal control rats. Non significant increases (p>0.05) were observed across the test groups in the total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, and lymphocytes counts compared with that of the normal control rats. The results suggest that consumption of the aqueous extract of H. sadbariffa leaf extract improves erythrocytic profile with insignificant effects on the leukocytic indices.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Study of Antioxidant and Anticoagulant Activities of Ethanol Extract of Pandanus tectorius Leaves

O. D. Omodamiro, C. O. Ikekamma

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/22231

Pandanus tectorius of the family Pandanaceae is a medicinal plant that grows in Nigeria. The Pandanus tectorius extract was tested for; its acute toxicity using mice and, its antioxidant activities (using DPPH spectrometic assay, anti-lipid peroxidation activity and Nitric oxide scavegin assay) and anticoagulant activities using fresh human plasma. The acute toxicity test gaved LD50 fo 176.78 mg/ml.DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) spectrophotometeric assay showed that at different concentrations of the extract (500 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml, 125 mg/ml, 62.5 mg/ml), there is different percentage inhibition (95.01, 81.39, 59.26, 25.81) respectively compared to standard drug using vitamin C at 300 mg/ml which gives 98.14% inhibition. Anti-lipid peroxidation activity of the extract showed that at different concentration (500 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml, 125 mg/ml, 62.5 mg/ml), there is different percentage inhibition (99.27, 94.99, 77.86, 29. 92) respectively compared to standard drug using vitamin C at 300 mg/ml which gives 99.71% inhibition. Nitric Oxide scavenging activity of the extract showed that at different (500 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml, 125 mg/ml, 62.5 mg/ml), will give different percentage inhibition (98.77, 88.15, 78.07, 45.52) respectively compared to standard drug using vitamin C at 300 mg/ml which gives 99.61% inhibition The antioxidant activity test shows that at increasing concentration, there is increasing inhibition and revealed that the crude leave extract possesses appreciable high antioxidant potentials. The crude ethanol extract of Pandanus tectorius leaves induced significantly (p<0.05) increase in the clotting times (26.23±1.34 mins, 15.95±0.53 mins, 9.37±0.14 mins, 6.75±0.75 mins, 5.71±0.58 mins) of different concentrations (500 mg, 250 mg, 62.25 mg, 125 m, 31.125 mg) of the extract respectively compared to the baseline clotting time of 83.5±2.12 secs for human plasma. However, the invitro anticoagulant activities using fresh human plasma showed that the extract demonstrated a reduced potency compared to wafarin. Pandanus tectorius leaves could be a source of novel anticoagulant and antioxidant compounds for the management of various hematological and biochemical disorders.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Hematological Changes Following Oral Administration of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ficus capensis in Albino Rats

N. N. Njoku-Oji, C. V. Nwike, U. Dimkpa, N. O. Ifegwu, L. C. Anike, S. O. Maduka, O. A. Sobanke, R. C. Uchefuna

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/23083

Objective: This work was carried out to investigate the effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Ficus capensis on some hematological parameters in albino rats.

Methodology: Twenty-eight normal male rats weighing between 180-240 g were used for this study. They were randomly grouped into four groups, A- D of seven rats each. Group A was the control group and received distilled water only, while groups B, C and D were administered 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of F. capensis leaves respectively via oral gavage for 28 days. Blood sample was collected from each animal by cardiac puncture using sterile needle into an ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) bottle for determination of RBC, WBC, PCV      and Hb.

Results: There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in RBC count in groups C (7.55±0.19 x106) and D (8.39±0.21 x106), when compared to the control (6.44±0.08 x106). There was significant (p<0.05) increase in WBC count in group D (13.43 ± 0.50 x103) when compared to control group (9.47±0.97 x103). Groups C (45.43±1.31%) and D (50.14±1.94%) showed significant (p<0.05) increase in PCV when compared to control group (35.57±0.78%). There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in Hb concentration in groups C (15.21±0.41 g/dl) and D (16.71±0.67 g/dl) when compared to control group (11.89±0.26 g/dl).

Conclusion: The present findings validated the claim that the leaf extract of F. capensis is useful in treating anemia.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Levels in de Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients: Correlation with Clinical Characteristics

Nahla Ahmad Bahgat Abdulateef, Mahmoud M. Kamel, Omima Salaheldin, Mohamed Ghareeb

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/23857

Aim of the Study: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous clonal stem cell malignancy characterized by proliferation of immature hematopoietic cells. Adipokines in particular leptin and adiponectin are highly active molecules that attracted considerable interest due to their potential role in the development of cancer as a risk factor. We aimed to measure the body mass index, serum levels of leptin and adiponectin in AML patients, correlating these levels with standard prognostic markers of the disease.

Study Design: A total of 60 newly diagnosed AML patients and twenty healthy controls age and sex matched were enrolled.

Methodology: All cases had complete blood counts. Patients had bone marrow aspiration/biopsy specimens, EDTA peripheral blood or bone marrow aspirate specimens for flow cytometry analysis, and heparinised sample for cytogenetic study. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing body weight (kg) by square height (m2). Serum leptin and adiponectin were assayed by enzyme linked immune assays.

Results: Out of all AML patients; 33 patients (55%) presented with hepatomegaly; 29 patients (49%) presented with splenomegaly and 11 (18.3%) presented with lymphadenopathy. None of our patients showed extramedullary involvement. Serum leptin were determined at a level of 10.9±9.5 ng/ml in the patient group which is significantly lower than the controls 60.2±165.6 ng/ml (P= .05). Serum adiponectin showed highly significant lower levels in the studied group compared to controls 1.5±0.9 and 4.6±2.9 respectively (P<.001). No significant correlation was detected between serum adipokines and other clinical or laboratory parameters except a negative significant correlation was detected between serum adiponectin and bone marrow blast. Regarding cytogenetic analysis, no significant correlation was detected between cytogenetic and serum leptin and adiponectin levels (P= .98, .38), respectively.

Conclusion: The current study addressed the reduction of adipocytokines levels in AML together with negative correlation between bone marrow blasts and adiponectin levels suggesting the implication of adipocytokines in pathogenesis of AML, however these findings necessitate additional studies on large scale of cases.