Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Intestinal Parasite-induced Anaemia and Its Association with Thrombocytosis: A Study from Riverside Communities in the State of Pará-Brazil

Fernanda Gomes de Souza, Thaís Luiza de Almeida Correa Lima, Érica dos Santos Sarges, Eduardo Dias de Almeida, Janaina Miranda Bezerra, Marly de Fátima Carvalho de Melo, Carolina Heitmann Mares Azevedo Ribeiro

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/24453

Aims: The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of anaemia associated with intestinal parasites and their involvement in anemic patients’ platelet levels.

Study Design: Population-based descriptive cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of the Study: School of Pharmacy, at Federal University of Para, and Program Lights in the Amazon, between May/2013 and June/2015.

Methods: The participants were 114 individuals from riverside communities, which have been subject to blood count (automated methodology, using the hematology analyzer Sysmex XE2100) and parasitological examination (qualitative method of Lutz or Hoffman, Pons and Janer).

Results: The prevalence of anaemia in the individuals studied was 41.23% (47). Of these, 34.04% (16) had microcytosis and hypochromia. There was positive diagnosis of intestinal parasites in 84.21% (96) of the total population surveyed, with a prevalence of 95.74% (45) and 76.11% (67) for the anemic and non-anemic groups, respectively. Significant association was found between anaemia and parasitic diseases (p = 0.0102). The anemic group differed significantly from the non-anemic group in relation to platelet count (p = 0.0242). We also observed a higher incidence of thrombocytosis in anemic individuals, which corresponded to 14.89%, while thrombocytosis in the non-anemic group occurred in 4.26% of the individuals.

Conclusion: The prevalence of intestinal parasites and anaemia detected in this study confirms that these are important public health problems in the surveyed riverside communities. The occurrence of anaemia in individuals infected with parasites was significantly higher than in the non-infected group, which makes intestinal parasitosis a determinant and aggravating factor for anaemia. In addition, the higher incidence of thrombocytosis in anemic individuals was accompanied by a higher blood count.


Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Beliefs of Blood Cancer among Affected and Unaffected Persons in Benin City, Nigeria

Ademola Samson Adewoyin, Nosakhare Tajudeen Idubor

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/24404

Introduction: Awareness and adequate knowledge regarding blood cancers is a crucial intervention for proper management and control.

Objectives: This study aimed to quantify and compare the level of knowledge among affected and unaffected persons, identify possible determinants of good knowledge and local pattern of beliefs regarding blood cancers. 

Materials And Methods: A cross sectional, pilot survey of 90 participants (45 with established blood cancer diagnosis; other 45 were not blood cancer patients) was undertaken. Data on personal details, knowledge and beliefs of blood cancer were collected using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics were performed.

Results: The mean ± SEM age of the study participants was 42.1±1.8 years. Most respondents (45.6%) had a moderate level of knowledge regarding blood cancers. The mean knowledge score among affected and unaffected persons were 4.6 and 6.2 (total of 11) respectively. About 29% of the participants had a good knowledge. A higher (tertiary) level of education and being unaffected by blood cancer were associated with a better level of knowledge.  Some local beliefs regarding cause of blood cancers included spiritual attacks from an enemy, exposure to open (naked) fire and punishment for committed sins. 

Conclusion: The level of knowledge regarding blood cancer among affected persons is below average. Necessary interventions should be directed at improving awareness and knowledge of blood cancer among affected and unaffected persons by physicians and other relevant stakeholders.


Open Access Original Research Article

Gliricidia sepium Aqueous Leaf Extract Possesses Antisickling Property

T. Oduola, M. K. Dallatu, A. O. Muhammed, M. A. Ndakotsu, I. M. Adebisi, S. W. Hassan

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/25181

Background: Extracts of leaf, flower and bark of Gliricidia sepium have been used in the treatment of patients with pathogenic bacterial infections, skin diseases, nematodes and antioxidants disturbances. We recently had information of its use in the treatment of sickle cell disease in some parts of Nigeria.

Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the in-vitro antisickling properties of Gliricidia sepium aqueous leaf extract.

Place and Duration of the Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

Methods: Air-dried leaves were ground and an aliquot, 100 g was extracted by maceration in 1.0 L of distilled water as solvent for 72 h with periodic stirring. The same procedure was repeated with residues and the mixture was filtered and concentrated to dryness. Different concentrations (5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg, 30 mg, 35 mg, 40 mg, 45 mg and 50 mg) were made from the extract and then tested for their antisickling activities against haemoglobin SS blood using freshly prepared 2% sodium metabisulphite.

Results: Our findings revealed strong antisickling activity; 20% antisckling at 5 mg, 50% at 10 mg, 80% at 15 mg and 100% antisickling from 20 mg upward for the leaf extract.

Conclusion: It has been shown for the first time, from this study that aqueous extract of Gliricidia sepium has strong antisickling properties justifying its use by the herbalists in the management of sickle cell disease. Toxicity studies, isolation and characterization of active compound are on-going in our laboratories.    


Open Access Original Research Article

Artifactual Changes in Whole Blood and Plasma Glucose Levels of Diabetic and Non Diabetic Blood Samples Twenty Four Hours (24 h) Post Collection

Patrick Emeka Aba, Miracle Nnaemeka Edeh, Ernest Chukwuamachago Nweze

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/26044

Analysis of diabetic blood may be delayed for hours post collection owing to several factors. Artifactual changes may occur thereby confounding the results. This study investigated some artifactual changes in glucose levels that may occur in diabetic blood stored at room temperature for 24 h. Ten (10) male Wistar rats were assigned to two (2) groups of five (5) rats per group. Group 1 rats were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of 160 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate while group 2 rats served as normal control. Rats with blood glucose values ≥ 126 mg/dl were considered diabetic. One week (7 days), following establishment of diabetes, blood samples were collected after overnight fasting from both diabetic and non diabetic rats using heparinized capillary tubes into sample bottles. Determination of the blood glucose values were done 1 h post collection and subsequently after every 2 h for 24 h on both whole blood and plasma. Results indicated earlier significant (p<0.05) decreases in the glucose values of diabetic whole blood samples compared to the non-diabetic counterpart. Decreases in the glucose levels of whole blood sample were significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to that of the plasma. It was concluded that the blood and plasma sugar levels of diabetic rats deteriorated faster compared to the non diabetic counterpart and that significant changes in the glucose levels of both blood and plasma occurred within 2 h post collection. The plasma sugar levels of non diabetic rats were unreliable (increased rather than decrease).


Open Access Minireview Article

Stem Cell Diversity and Applications in Therapy

Kalene Oliveira, Maryene Guia, Janaina Bezerra, Carolina Azevedo

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/23258

Aim: In this review, we will discuss the different types of stem cells and their uses in therapies.

Introduction: Stem cells are cells produced during pregnancy, and have the ability to differentiate and self renew via stimulation. These cells are classified as totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent and totipotent has potency to differentiate in all types of cells.

Discussion: There are several types of stem cells such as embryonic, adult, mesenchymal and hematopoietic. Since these cells were discovered, they have been widely studied as an alternative treatment for various pathologies. The studies that have been conducted show that stem cells have potential in the treatment of diseases, particularly for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease and cancer.

Conclusion: The application of stem cells is a likely therapeutic alternative, despite their limitations. There is a need to extend research in this very promising area.