Open Access Review Article

The Cell Based Model of in-vivo Coagulation: A Work in Progress

Biswaprakash Patri, Anubhav Abinash Sahu, Souravi Pal, Sukumar Chakravarty

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/26906

The goal of this article is to review the evolution of theories of coagulation and their proposed models to serve as a tool. When reviewing the research and practice literature that was published in the context of these theories over time, including the critical contribution of cells, we have observed a model based on work of many workers, in which Hemostasis is regulated by various properties of cell surface, which occurs in vivo. The coagulation occurs not as a cascade/waterfall, but occurs in 4 overlapping steps-(i) Initiation, (ii) Amplification, (iii) Propagation, (iv) Termination. Cell Based model has given an insight into the pathophysiological mechanism of certain coagulation disorders which were till now ill understood.


Open Access Original Research Article

Impaired Appropriateness of Erythropoietin in Anaemic HIV Infected Patients

Adebola Olu-Taiwo, Abimbola Olatilewa Amusu, Oladele Simeon Olatunya, Adewunmi Adediran, Ebenezer Adekunle Ajayi, Abiola Ann Ogbenna, Alani Sulaimon Akanmu

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/26793

Background and Objective: Erythropoietin response to anaemia has been reported to be suboptimal in HIV infected anaemic patients. Among Africans, particularly Nigeria little or no reports have been published describing incidence, prevalence and correlation between erythropoietin and anaemia in HIV, and its effect on the course and outcome of management of HIV infected patients. This study was carried out to determine the degree of erythropoietin response in anaemic HIV infected persons.

Methods: A total of 120 subjects were studied. These comprised of the study group made up of 40 HIV infected treatment naive patients who had anaemia with Haemoglobin level <10g/dL and 80 control subjects who were age and sex matched. The controls consisted of 20 HIV infected non-anaemic individuals, 40 non-HIV infected anaemic individuals, and 20 non-HIV infected non-anaemic individuals. Blood samples were collected for haemoglobin estimation, white cell count and platelet count by automated counter. The CD4+ cell count was done by semi-automated flow cytometer. The viral load was quantitated using PCR- based diagnostic tests and serum erythropoietin level was estimated using ELISA technique. All patients gave written informed consent with ethical approval by the hospital ethics and research committee.

Results: The study groups consisted of 40 males and 80 females. The mean age of male HIV anaemic subjects (45.15±5.63, N=13) was significantly higher than that of the female HIV anaemic subjects (34.16±7.21, N=25) p=0.005. The mean CD4+ cell count of HIV non-anaemic subjects (530.55 cells/µL ±423.35) was significantly higher than HIV anaemic subjects (188.18 cells/µL ±157.09) (p=0.0009). Using regression equation the expected serum erythropoietin values for a given haemoglobin level in HIV subjects was estimated. The appropriateness of erythropoietin level was then determined and a ratio of <0.8 was considered inappropriate. Seventy one percent of the HIV anaemic subjects had erythropoietin response ratio less than 0.8.

Conclusion: There was a blunted erythropoietin response for the degree of anaemia in HIV compared with HIV negative subjects.


Open Access Original Research Article

ABO & Rh (D) Phenotypes and Alleles in the Patients with Parkinson’s Disease among the North Indian Population

Akhilesh Kumar Verma, Anand Kumar Keshari, Renu Kumari, Tarun Kumar, Vivek Sharma, Tej Bali Singh, Ragini Srivastava

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/26866

Aim: Recent studies have pointed the association of blood groups with cognitive impairment and dementia. This study was planned to find the frequencies of ABO, Rh (D) alleles and examine the effect of their phenotype in the patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) in north Indian population.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry with the association of Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Medical Sciences (IMS), Banaras Hindu University (BHU), India for the period of September-2011 to August-2015.

Study Design: ABO and Rh alleles were determined in 240 patients with PD and 940 healthy individuals, which were selected as cases and controls respectively. Blood groups typing were done with rapid slide method. Allelic frequencies were calculated by using Hardy- Weinberg principle.

Results: Chi- Square (χ2) test was significant for the comparison of various ABO blood groups in between cases and controls (P < 0.001). According to Z-test of proportion, the frequencies of phenotype A, B and allele IA were not significantly altered in cases as compared to controls (P > 0.05). While, frequencies of phenotype AB and allele IB were significantly increased and frequency of phenotype O and allele IO were significantly decreased (all P < 0.01). The observed phenotypes of Rh (D) blood groups and frequencies of allele D and d were not significantly altered in cases when compared with controls (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Study showed the increased frequencies of phenotypes B, AB and alleles IB along with decreased frequencies of phenotype O and allele IO among the patients with PD than normal population. It seems that the phenotypes AB and allele IB may have the risk against the development of Parkinson’s disease; while phenotype O and allele IO may have the protective action.


Open Access Original Research Article

Hematological Changes Following Oral Administration of Aqueous Root Bark Extract of Salacia lehmbachii in Albino Rats

G. A. Essiet, A. D. Essien, L. P. Takem, G. C. Akuodor, F. V. Udoh

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/26344

Objective: This study investigated the effects of oral administration of aqueous root bark extract of Salacia lehmbachii on some haematological indices in albino rats.

Methodology: Twenty-four male rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly divided into four groups, labeled 1-4 and each group contained six rats. Group 1 (control) received 2 mL of distilled water while groups 2, 3 and 4 had 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root bark extract of Salacia lehmbachii respectively. The extract was prepared from Soxhlet extraction of petroleum ether defatted plant residue using water. Administration was through an oral gavage for 28 days. At the end of experimentation period, animals were anaesthetized by placing each in an air tight desiccator containing cotton wool soaked with chloroform and blood samples collected by cardiac puncture using sterile needles attached to 5 mL syringes into ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) bottles for haematological studies using  automated haemanalyzer.

Results: There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in RBC count in groups 3 (8.720.08 x106) and 4 (8.970.07x 106), when compared to the control (6.670.24 x 106). Haemoglobin level (g/dl) in treated groups were significantly (p<0.05) raised to 13.59±0.11, 15.07±0.21 and 16.55±0.31 respectively compared to control (12.81±0.11). PCV was increased from 40.071.51 (control) to 43.070.71 (group 2), 45.961.12 (group 3) and 49.93 1.69 (group 4). RBC indices in treated rats were not statistically different from control. WBC count was significantly (p<0.05) increased in groups 2 (10.55±0.41x103), 3 (13.43±1.02 x103) and 4 (18.38±1.46 x 103) compared to control (8.55±0.99 x103). Platelet count (x 103 cells/µL) was significantly (p<0.05) raised in groups 2 (840.670.04), 3(925.440.07) and 4 (962.330.05) compared to control (703.830.04).  

Conclusion: Findings in this study have shown that the aqueous root bark extract of Salacia lehmbachii increases haematopoietic parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Hematological and Tissue Weight Changes Associated with Sub Acute Exposure of Rats to Telfairia occidentalis Root, Pod and Stem Extracts

Enyinnaya A. Ogbonnaya, Patrick O. Uadia

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/26433

Aim: The effect of twenty eight (28)-day exposure to aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis root, pod and stem on hematological parameters of Wistar rats was assessed in this study.

Methodology: Sixty eight (68) wistar rats were separated into 17 groups of 4 animals per group and distilled water, root, pod, and stem extracts of Telfairia occidentalis were administered at doses of 250, 750, 1500, 2250, and 3000 mg/kg body weight (bw). Test animals received extracts for 27 days, and sacrificed on the 28th day by jugular laceration under mild chloroform anesthesia. The hematological parameters were determined using standard laboratory protocol.

Results: The result showed that PCV, Hb and RBC were significantly (P<0.05) reduced when root extract was administered at 1500 mg/kg bw. The extract also caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in WBC at all dose levels, except 750 mg/kg bw. The pod extract caused significant (P<0.05) increase in the PCV, Hb, and RBC when administered at the doses of 250 mg/kg bw and 3000 mg/kg bw. The WBC increased significantly only at 2250 mg/kg bw dose administration of the pod extract, while the PLT count reduced significantly (P<0.05) at 3000 mg/kg bw pod extract. The stem extract, at different doses, significantly (P<0.05) reduced the PCV value without corresponding changes in Hb and RBC. Although insignificant (P>0.05), WBC values increased at all the administered dose levels. T. occidentalis root, pod and stem extracts caused insignificant (P>0.05) changes in the kidney, liver and heart weight of experimental animals.

Conclusion: While the root extract of T. occidentalis may possess immunomodulatory potentials and may cause anemia at higher concentration, the pod extract may have some antianemic, immune stimulatory and thrombocytopenic effect at higher concentration. Whereas the stem extract may possess antidiuretic potential, none of the extracts showed any sign of organ toxicity at the exposed doses.