Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Rh (Rhesus) D Blood Group, Risk Factors and Burden of Rh D Alloimmunisation among Female Secondary School Students in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria

Ogbenna Ann Abiola, Oyedeji Abiola, Onifade Oluwatoyin Olawunmi, Adewoyin Ademola Samson

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/27534

Background: Rh (Rhesus) blood group antigen especially D antigen plays a pivotal role in provision of safe blood and safe pregnancy. Antigen mismatch between blood donor and recipient or pregnant woman and the foetus sets the stage for immunohaematological complication such as haemolytic transfusion reaction and haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. Individual knowledge of the Rh blood group status among females of reproductive age group is a contributory measure for effective control and prevention of untoward complications of antigen mismatch.

Objective: This study assessed the level of awareness of own Rh D blood group status among female secondary school students, their risk for alloimmunisation, the distribution of Rh D antigen and the burden of alloimmunisation.

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study of 927 female secondary school students in Ikorodu, Lagos, South-West Nigeria was performed. A multistage sampling technique was used.  Ethical approval was granted by Lagos University Teaching Hospital’s (LUTH) Health Research and Ethics Committee and permission granted by Lagos State Ministry of Health. Parental/guardian and student informed assent consent were obtained. Relevant data on socio demographics, knowledge of Rh D blood group, and risk factors for alloimmunisation were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from all participants and tested for Rh D blood group and alloantibody (Anti D) status using standard protocols. Results are presented in frequency tables.

Results: Sixty-eight (7.3%) have heard about Rh blood group system. About 6.7% of the participants described Rh system as an independent system, while 6.5% described the Rh system as a part of ABO antigen system. Of the 122 students who knew their blood group, only 106 (86.9%) were correct about their Rh D status after being tested. Known risk factors for Rh D alloimmunisation such as pregnancy and blood transfusion were observed in 53 (5.7%) of the participants. About 96.7% of the participants were Rh D positive. None of the Rh D negative female students was allo-immunised.

Conclusion: This study observed poor awareness/knowledge regarding the Rh (rhesus) blood group system among secondary school females in Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Though, none of the participant was alloimmunised to the Rh D antigen, 5.7% had significant risk factors. Efforts should be directed at improving the awareness/knowledge of the rhesus blood group system and its reproductive implications particularly among female secondary students in Ikorodu, Lagos and other parts of Nigeria.


Open Access Original Research Article

Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors; North Middle Libya

Mohamed Kaled A. Shambesh, Ezzadin Areaf Franka, Faisal Fathalla Ismail, Malik Abdurrazag Elosta

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/27145

Background: Post transfusion hepatitis B (PTHB) continues to be an important public health concern in regard to blood transfusion in Libya. The inclusion of tests specifically for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) began as part of the mandatory screening of blood donors in the early 1980s. This endeavor significantly enhanced blood safety in terms of protecting people against the transmission of an HBV infection. However, several studies have revealed that a percentage of HBsAg donors who tested negative may in fact still be positive for the illness due to a presence of different antigens known as hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) meaning that it constitutes a possibility of circulating hepatitis B viral DNA (HBV-DNA), thus being a potential source of post transfusion hepatitis B (PTHB).

Objectives: To determine the presence of anti-HBc and HBV-DNA in healthy HBsAg negative blood donors in the middle northern region of Libya (composed of the metropolitan cities of Misrata, Khoums, Zlitin, Sirite and surrounding small villages).

Methods: The Misrata central blood bank (which services the middle northern region of Libya) provided A total of 979 HBsAg negative blood samples from healthy blood donors that were tested for anti-HBc using the VITROS® 3600 Immunodiagnostic System. The reactive samples were then further tested for the presence of HBV-DNA.

Results: From the sample of 979, 38 of whom (3.9%) were anti-HBc positive. One sample tested positive for HBV-DNA by PCR (polymers chain reaction) from the anti-HBc positive samples indicating (2.6%) of the subgroup of anti-HBc positive samples and 0.1% from the whole sample population screened.

Conclusion: Despite blood donors being HBsAg-negative in the middle northern region of Libya, 3.9% had anti-HBc, of which 2.6% of the anti-HBc positive donors had detectable HBV DNA. Further studies are needed to determine the actual yield of including an anti-HBc test in routine screening of blood donors.


Open Access Original Research Article

Calotropis procera Extract Halts Plasmodium falciparum Transgression Through Red Blood Cell (RBC) Membrane

Linz- Buoy George, Shivali Guleria, Dhara Jani, Urja Joshi, Ketaki Desai, Hyacinth Highland

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/27960

Aim: To evaluate the potential of Calotropis procera extracts in erythrocyte membrane stabilization with special emphasis on Plasmodium falciparum entry into RBCs.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Zoology, BMT and Human Genetics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Gujarat, India, between December-2014 to December- 2015.

Methodology: In this study, we evaluated the erythrocyte membrane stabilization properties of Calotropis procera leaf extracts. The aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Calotropis procera were screened for its phytochemical, antioxidant, erythrocyte membrane stabilization and subsequent antiplasmodial activity. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity was evaluated on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive (MRC2) and chloroquine-resistant (RKL9) strains.

Results: In the present study, phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract has shown only the presence of flavonoids, triterpenoids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds whereas the methanolic extract has shown the presence of all the phyto-components except saponins, oils and fats.  Antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by (DPPH•) radical scavenging assay. The methanolic extract of Calotropis procera showed more potent antioxidant activity when compared to aqueous extract. We observed an increased inhibition of entry of the parasites in relation to the concentration of both the extracts. Though enhanced stabilization effects were observed at higher concentrations of the methanolic extract, there was a steady membrane stabilizing property with the aqueous extract. The experimental evidence obtained in our study revealed that the methanolic extract of the leaves of C. procera, tends to be more effective in preventing the parasite entry into RBCs.

Conclusion: Our finding confirms the importance of investigating the antimalarial activity of Calotropis procera which is used in traditional medicine. Overall, the methanolic extract of Calotropis procera appeared to be the best candidate and will be further investigated for their erythrocyte membrane stabilization and antiplasmodial properties of the individual isolated compounds, alone and in combinations.


Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of Weaner Rabbits fed Varying Levels of Dried Gmelina arborea Leaf Meal

P. C. Jiwuba, D. O. Ugwu, O. E. Kadurumba, E. Dauda

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/27947

Aims: Rabbit production fulfils important socio-economic functions and has the ability to alleviate the animal protein inadequacy. In Nigeria and most other developing countries, inadequate nutrition undermines rabbit in expressing their full potential. Therefore, a 49-day study was carried out to determine the effect of varying levels Gmelina arborea leaf meal (GALM) on haematology and serum biochemistry of weaner rabbits.

Study Design: Completely randomized design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: At the Rabbit unit of the Teaching and Research farm of Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi state Nigeria between June and August, 2015.

Methodology: 80 weaner rabbits were used for this study. Four diets were formulated such that diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 contain MOLM at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively. Other ingredients remained constant for the four diets. The diets were offered to the rabbits which were randomly divided into four experimental groups of twenty animals each, with five rabbits constituting a replicate. Blood samples were drawn from each animal per treatment on the last day of the trial and evaluated for haematological and serum biochemical profile and data obtained analysed statistically.

Results: Results showed that the haematological parameters differed (P<0.05) significantly among the treatment groups. Packed cell volume, red blood cell and haemoglobin ranged between 35.31 – 41.37%, 9.55-12.62 g/dl and 4.39-7.10x106 /ul for T1 and T4 respectively and were improved (p<0.05) by GALM supplementation at 30% inclusion level. White blood cell (4.90-10.52x106 /dl) count of weaner rabbits in treatment groups was significantly (p<0.05) higher and better than the control. There were significant (p<0.05) difference in total proteins, urea, creatinine levels, and cholesterol for the treatment groups. The proteins (61.07-55.99 g/l), albumin (38.21-32.23 g/l), urea (35.40–30.96 mg/dl), and cholesterol (46.47-11.58 mg/dl) values tended to decrease with increasing levels of GALM for T1 and T4 respectively. Cholesterol was significantly (P<0.05) reduced at 30% inclusion.

Conclusion: These results showed that inclusion Gmelina arborea leaf meal had a beneficial effect on health status of weaner rabbits and therefore 30% was recommended for optimum rabbit production.


Open Access Case Study

Variation in Blood Indices in Cases of Anemias Coexisting with HbE from Eastern India

Tridip Chatterjee, Amit Chakravarty, Sudipa Chakravarty

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2016/26679

Hemoglobin E is one of the most common forms of abnormal hemoglobin, related to hemoglobinopathies in the world. It can result in a heterogeneous group of disorders ranging from asymptomatic to severe anemia with regular blood transfusion dependency. HbE trait and HbE/E are mild disorders, as compared to other form of β globin defect. But when HbE combine with other forms of anemia, it can yield variety of clinical manifestations. Not only these various clinical changes caused by HbE hemoglobinopathy in homozygous or heterozygous forms, but also the standard haematological parameters changes interestingly often leading to misdiagnosis, when other anemia like Aplastic Anemia and Iron Deficiency Anemia are coexisted with HbE allele.

In this paper, we have tried to address how different anemias along with HbE hemoglobinopathy can bring about changes in different hematological parameters. We have categorically tried to address the issue by comparing the specific and relevant hematological parameters of these HbE hemoglobinopathy patients, with presence of others forms of anemia, like aplastic anemia, iron deficiency anemia.

This paper can give very significant clues to both the future researchers and clinicians to diagnose the HbE hemoglobinopathy with more certainty and clarity, when other forms of anemia co-existed with HbE.