Open Access Review Article

Haemostatic Disorders in Sickle Cell Disease Subjects in Nigeria: A Review of Literature

Kingsley Akaba, Marcus Inyama, Timothy Ekwere, Obinna Iheanacho, Ekpeyong Bassey, Ushie Godwin, Hogan Archibong, Efiok Efiok

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2018/43929

Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterised with chronic anaemia and painful crisis. SCD is associated with hypercoagulability or prothrombotic state that can predispose to thromboembolic complications with increasing morbidity and mortality.

Aim: This study aimed to show the various documented haemostatic disorders and possible thromboembolic complications among SCD subjects in Nigeria.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using the internet search engines linked to academic databases including Pubmed, Google Scholar, Ebsco, Hinari, Scopus, etc. Studies involving hemostatic disorders in Nigeria were thoroughly searched, and the references of such articles were also searched for any probable relevant information.

Findings and Conclusion: There is a paucity of information on this subject in Nigeria, and there are inconsistencies in the available studies.

Haemostatic disorders in sickle cell disease are conditions that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Further research on the level of natural anticoagulant is required to verify the correlation between haemostatic disorders and thromboembolic complications in SCD subjects in Nigeria.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Investigation of the Effects of Different Aqueous Preparations of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Zobo Drinks) on Haematological Parameters in Normal Wistar Albino Rats

Chukwu, Charles Nnanna, Ikewuchi, Catherine Chidinma, Akaninwor, Joyce Oronne

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2018/26076

Aim: Investigating and comparing the effect of administration of different preparations of the commonly-consumed Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Zobo) drinks on haematological parameters.

Study Design: Comparative study using animal models (Wistar Albino Rats) with daily administration of the same concentration of different zobo drink samples.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria and its environs between November 2014 and February 2015.

Methodology: Thirty (30) Wistar albino rats were grouped into six (6) groups of five rats each. Group A served as the control and B was administered an unblended zobo drink. Groups C – E were administered locally-produced zobo samples and group F was a National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC)-branded zobo drink. A concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the samples was administered orally to groups B–F for 21 days. Packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin count, white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were analyzed and compared.

Results: The White blood cell (WBC) count and percentage lymphocytes were significantly lower (P < 0.05), while Haemoglobin, Packed cell volume, Red blood cell (RBC) count and Platelet count were significantly higher (P < 0.05) when compared with the control. Percentage neutrophils showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) compared with the control.

Conclusion: The zobo drinks possess haematocrit properties that result in higher levels of blood volume and may be used for the management of anaemia. They also possess the ability to reduce WBC count.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Human Erythrocyte Filterability with Trapping Rate Obtained by Nickel Mesh Filtration Technique: Two Independent Parameters of Erythrocyte Deformability

Takeshi Arita, Mitsuhiro Fukata, Toru Maruyama, Keita Odashiro, Takehiko Fujino, Chizuko Wakana, Aya Sato, Kazue Takahashi, Yoshiko Iida, Shiro Mawatari, Koichi Akashi

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2018/44667

Background: Erythrocyte deformability is a major determinant of microcirculation in vivo. Although this concept was defined as filterability evaluated by flow-pressure curve constructed during a filtration process of erythrocyte suspension through a nickel mesh filter, the behaviours of erythrocytes during the filtration process are unknown.

Aim: The present study aimed to obtain the better rheological understanding of the behaviours of erythrocytes passing through the nickel mesh filter.

Methods: Blood sample was obtained from 8 apparently healthy subjects after obtaining informed consent. Erythrocyte filterability (%) was calculated as the flow rate of a hematocrit-adjusted erythrocyte suspension relative to that of saline at a filtration pressure of 100 mmH2O in flow-pressure curves obtained by nickel mesh filtration technique. Nickel mesh filters showing specific pore sizes of 6.00 μm (step 1) and 5.31 μm (step 2) were chosen, and two-step filtration protocol was performed. Erythrocytes counts (EC) were performed immediately before (ECpre) and after (ECpost) each filtration, and erythrocyte trapping rate (%) was defined as (ECpre – ECpost) / ECpre. Erythrocyte filterability and trapping rate were correlated in each step for data analysis.

Results: ECpre was always greater than corresponding ECpost in every subject and in both steps. Erythrocyte filterability in the step 1 (91.8 ± 2.1%) was close to that in the step 2 (90.0 ± 10.3%). Likely, the trapping rate in the step 1 (77.8 ± 2.4%) was close to that in the step 2 (79.4 ± 7.0%). Mean filterability in step 1 did not differ from that in step 2 (p = 0.637), and the same was true with respect to the mean trapping rate (p = 0.516). However, individual comparison between the filterability and the trapping rate of both steps demonstrated no correlation.

Conclusions: The present findings indicate that erythrocytes in suspension are trapped substantially by our nickel mesh filter. This trapping rate was not correlated to the erythrocyte filterability obtained by the flow-pressure curve during the nickel mesh filtration. Therefore, the erythrocyte trapping rate should be considered as a hemorheological parameter independent of the erythrocyte filterability.


Open Access Original Research Article

Utility of Placental Umbilical Cord Blood in Autoimmune and Degenerative Disorders

Maimuna Khatoon, Jyoti Bindal, Dharmesh Chandra Sharma, Prakriti Gupta, Ashok Singh Tomar, Khozema Saify, Rakesh Gupta

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2018/45260

Background: Umbilical cord blood is whole human blood (60 to 80 ml) that remains in the placenta and umbilical cord after childbirth; generally considered as a medical waste. It is a rich source of stem cells, growth factor, cytokines, etc., and, can be collected, stored and utilized in the treatment of incurable diseases.

Aims and Objects: The aim of the present study is to establish the fact that placental umbilical cord whole blood is a safe alternative to adult blood and to assess its utility in degenerative and autoimmune disease along with its hematological parameters.

Materials and Methods: It is a prospective two year study (From September 2016 to August 2018) of 250 umbilical cord whole blood transfusions in autoimmune and degenerative disorders at Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior, India. Follow up of patients was done up to 3 months and data was collected and analyzed statistically by frequency distribution and percentage proportion.

Results: A total of 250 units meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were transfused to 99 preregistered patients; Vitiligo 61 (159 transfusions), Thalassemia 15 (30), Retinitis Pigmentosa 9 (23), Geriatric Disorders 9 (24), Aplastic anemia 4 (9) and High Myopia 1 (5). Out of 250 transfusions, in one case (0.4%) adverse event was reported. Outcome of transfusion reveals; In Vitiligo –regimentation in affected area, Thalassemia-reduction in frequency of transfusions, Retinitis Pigmentosa- improvement in vision area, Geriatric patients- sense of well being, Aplastic anemia- prolonged survival and High Myopia-improvement in vision area.

Conclusion: Umbilical cord blood is safe and genuine alternative of adult blood. It is effective in degenerative and autoimmune diseases. It should not be discarded as medical waste and utilized judiciously in the human well being.


Open Access Case Study

Multiple Myeloma Relapse Presenting as Unilateral Blindness

Amit Badola, Tanvi Khanna, Kunal ., Sanjiv Kumar Verma

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2018/45424

Multiple Myeloma is a chronic disease. While therapy is largely focused for control, relapse is inevitable. Central nervous system relapse of myeloma is less common. Unilateral painless blindness is a rare entity and its occurrence in the setting of multiple myeloma has not been commonly reported. We encountered a case of multiple myeloma on treatment, who developed unilateral blindness and later on confirmed to have relapse of disease.