Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Protein C and Protein S of Pregnancy Loss Victims

Igwe, Chioma Ada, Adias Teddy Charles, Eze Evelyn Mgbeoma, Nwachuku Edna Ogechi

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i230094

Background: The haemostatic changes that result in thrombophilia during the pregnant state have been linked to pregnancy loss.

Objective: Assessment of Protein S, and Protein C assays in pregnancy loss victims in Abia State, South East, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving women in their reproductive years. Study population was stratified into 3 groups and the Protein C and Protein S concentrations measured and compared among the three groups.

Results: A total of 130 apparently healthy Nigerian women of child-bearing age were enrolled in the study. The study groups consisted of 70 women who had just lost a pregnancy, 30 women                  with normally progressing pregnancy and 30 nonpregnant women. The protein C concentration for the pregnancy-loss subjects was significantly lower than that of the normal pregnancy at p ≤ 0.01 while that of Protein S showed non-significance (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Protein C deficiency is associated with increase in pregnancy loss.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1and 2 Mutations in Adult Egyptian Patients with Denovo Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia, Their Relation to Clinical Characteristics, FLT3/ITD and Nucleophosmin 1 Mutations and Impact on Treatment Outcome

Sherine Samir Barakat, Manal Abd Elsatar Elsorady, Mona Wagdy Ayad, Dalia Abd Elmoety Elneely, Fatma Mohamed Abd Elfatah

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i230095

Background: Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a malignancy that is heterogeneous in nature characterized by genetic abnormalities some of which are established in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. An additional role for alterations in epigenetic mechanisms has been also highlighted in the pathogenesis of the disease. This may have a role in determining the disease outcome, impact the treatment decision and provide options for targeted therapies especially in patients who lack genetic aberrations. One of the modes of epigenetic dysregulation is mutation in genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 that has been observed in AML with a higher incidence in patients with normal karyotype (NK).

Aim of the work: The aim of this work was to study the frequency of IDH1 (R132) and IDH2 (R140Q, R172K) mutations in adult Egyptian patients with de novo acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), their relation with clinical characteristics, other molecular markers (the internal tandem duplication (ITD)) mutation of FLT3 gene and NPM1 gene mutation) and impact on treatment outcome.

Methods: Peripheral blood samples from 50 adult patients with denovo acute myeloid leukemia, admitted to the haematology unit at Alexandria Main University Hospital from February 2015 to February 2017, were used. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was used for detection of IDH1 codon R132 and IDH2 codons (R140, R172) mutations on genomic DNA. PCR was used for detection of FLT3-ITD mutation on genomic DNA. PCR was used for detection of NPM1 mutation on RNA.

Results: IDH 1and 2 mutations occurred in 30% of newly diagnosed AML patients and 47.6% of NK patients. Both mutations did not co-occur except in one case. IDH positive patients were significantly older than IDH negative patients (p=0.003). There was no statistically significant correlation between any of the clinical parameters and the IDH mutations. FAB-M2 was the most common FAB subtype among IDH positive patients. No correlation between IDH mutations and NPM1 or FLT3 could be demonstrated. IDH positive patients had significantly lower CR rates after induction chemotherapy than IDH negative patients (p=0.021).

Conclusion: IDH1, 2 mutations are recurring genetic alterations in AML with a higher incidence in patients with normal karyotype and they may have an unfavorable impact on clinical outcome in adult AML patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship among HbA1c and Some Markers of Endothelial Damage in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Ifeanyichukwu Martin Ositadinma, Ngwu Amauche Martina, Eluke Blessing Chekwube

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i230097

Background: A number of processes regulating the thrombolytic balance are impaired in diabetic patients as a result of dysfunction of endothelial cells leading to a hypercoagulative state. Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is an important marker of endothelial dysfunction. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen (PAI-1-Ag), the major physiological inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), is mainly produced by endothelium. The aim of this study is to measure plasma levels of von Willebrand factor, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and to correlate with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c).

Study Design: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 30 diagnosed type 2 DM patients who were about to start treatment.

Place and Duration of Study: Medical outpatient (MOP) clinic of Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital (ESUTTH), between January and December 2016.

Methodology: We included 30 patients (13 men, 17 women; age range 40-80 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood samples were drawn from the patients before they commenced treatment, six months into the treatment and at twelve months of the treatment. Blood samples were also drawn from 25 age matched non diabetic patients. Plasma von Willebrand factor and Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels were determined by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels were also evaluated along with them.

Results: This study was conducted on 30 type 2 DM patients consisting of 13 males and 17 females. At treatment naïve, mean levels of vWF were significantly increased (45.48 +/- 6.46) in male type 2 Diabetic patients compared to the control (20.45 +/- 0.26). Six months into treatment mean levels of vWF were significantly increased (48.18 +/- 4.99) in female type 2 Diabetic patients compared to the control (37.64 +/- 7.93). The plasma levels of vWF were significantly and positively correlated with HbA1c at six months into treatment in male type 2 DM patients. The plasma levels of vWF were also significantly and positively correlated with PAI-1 at six and twelve months into treatment in both genders.

Conclusion: There was strong significant positive correlation between plasma levels of vWF and PAI-1 in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

ABO Blood Group System: Its Association with Anthropometric Indices among Young Adults of Yoruba Ethnicity

M. A. Asafa, O. Ogunlade, R. A. Bolarinwa, L. A. Bisiriyu, O. A. Eluwole, S. T. Asafa, K. A. Oderinu

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i230098

Introduction: The ABO blood group system is unique in immunology and haematology because it is the only system in which antibodies are consistently and predictably present in the serum of normal individuals whose red cells lack the antigens. Several epidemiological studies have reported that the distribution of different ABO blood groups vary markedly among the populations of different geographical areas reflecting racial differences.

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the association between ABO blood group and anthropometric indices among apparently healthy young adults of Yoruba ethnicity.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Department of Physiological Sciences and University Health Centre, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife between May 2016 to June 2017.

Methodology: Eighty apparently healthy young adults who were purposely selected participated in the study after screening for the ABO blood groups following the standard protocol. They were divided into four equal groups; 20 in each of blood groups A, B, AB and O who were age- and sex - matched. The weight (kg) and height (cm) of the participants were measured following standard protocol. Body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) were estimated from weight and height using Quetelex and Mosteller formulae respectively. Chi-square was used to compare grouped data while the comparison of means of parameters among the four blood groups was done using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). A p-value of < 0.05 was taken statistically significant.

Results: Out of the total 80 participants, 15% were males. The mean ± SD of height(m) of participants with blood groups A, B, O and AB were 1.65 ± 0.06, 1.63 ± 0.08, 1.62 ± 0.08 and 1.63 ± 0.08 (F= 0.349, p= 0.790) respectively. The mean ± SD of weight(kg) of the participants with blood group A,B, O and AB were 56.15 ± 8.71, 56.00 ± 11.21, 57.10 ± 12.73 and 58.05 ± 10.35 (F= 0.154, p= 0.927) respectively. The mean ± SD of BMI in kg/m2 for blood groups A, B, O and AB were 20.74 ± 3.22, 20.86 ± 2.91, 21.79 ± 5.10 and 21.91 ± 4.21 (F= 0.472, p= 0.703) respectively while the mean ± SD of BSA (m2) for blood group A, B, O and AB were 1.60 ± 0.12, 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.60 ± 0.18 and 1.62 ± 0.15 (F= 0.098, p= 0.961) respectively.

Conclusion: AB Blood group may be predisposed to metabolic syndrome due to the higher mean of weight, BSA and BMI found in this group.

Open Access Case Report

Iron Deficiency Anaemia- A Case Report with Oral Manifestations

M. Chandra Sekhar, D. Ayesha Thabusum, M. Charitha, G. Chandrasekhar, P. Shaziya Firdous

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i230096

Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency disorder in children and is worldwide in distribution. It is characterised by fatigue, weakness, pallor and koilonychias. Thus oral physician play an important role in diagnosis and thereby prevention of anaemia, as oral manifestations may be the earliest feature of the condition. The purpose of this article is to present a case of iron deficiency anaemia of unknown cause in a 16 year old female child.