Open Access Original Research Article

Body Weight and Platelet Count Changes in Zidovudine Administered Wistar Albino Rats Treated with Ethanolic Extracts of Annona muricata and Fagara zanthoxyloide

Ekere, Oghenekaro Uchechukwu, Ikpeama, Utomoibor Evelyn

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i330099

Zidovudine administration either in single or fixed-dose combination usually results in a decrease in body weight and in some cases thrombocytopenia. The present study investigated the body weight and platelet count changes observed in zidovudine pre-administered Wistar albino rats on treatment with ethanolic extracts of the leaves Annona muricata (AM) and roots of Fagara zanthoxyloide (FZ). Plants samples were collected from Alakahia community, Rivers state and Opoo community, Ogun state; while Wistar albino rats were grouped into normal control, negative control (receiving zidovudine at 100 g/ml/Kg bw), AM and FZ extract treatment (at 4.5 and 3.8 g/ml/Kg B.W respectively) groups with analysis performed bi-weekly. All tests were performed using standard procedures with all reagents of analytic grade. Phytochemical screening of the extracts showed significantly high amounts of alkaloids (10.47- 21.15 mg / 100 g), phenols (10.60-15.22 mg / 100 g) and tannins (14.23 - 50.19 mg / 100 g). The investigation into their proximate compositions also showed high fat (5.78 ± 0.02) in FZ, moisture (10.47 ± 0.05) in AM and fibre (7.37 ± 0.03) in FZ. The amino acid phenylalanine (5.10-6.01 g / 100 g), isoleucine (4.44-5.20 g / 100 g), lysine (4.03 -5.31 g / 100 g) was observed to be available in the extracts. In the normal control group body weight increased by 20.75 g at week 6 while administration of Zidovudine, resulted in a decreased in bodyweight by 1.14 g in week 2 and 3.32 g in week 6. Extract treatment caused a significant increase (p≤0.05) in body weight by 17.95g (AM) and 18.23g (FZ) at week 6. Platelet count was also observed to significantly decrease (p≤0.05) by 33.42% in the negative control group when compared to the normal control. This was observed to significant increases in extract treatment by 49.56% (AM) and 51.32% (FZ). The results thus suggest a possible beneficial effect of the extracts of AM and FZ in checkmating the weight and platelet loss observed as a side effect of zidovudine therapy as well as the possible use in haemorrhagic conditions to reduce bleeding without thromboembolism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synergistic Pharmacological Effect of Leaf Extracts of Ficus exasperata and Telfeira occidentalis on Chloramphenicol - Induced Anaemia in Wistar Rats

Nweje- Anyalowu Paul Chukwuemeka, Anyalogbu Ernest Anayochukwu Aniemeka, Idakwoji Precious Adejoh, Agatemor Uzuazokaro Mark-Maria, Uroko Robert Ikechukwu

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i330100

Objective: This study was undertaken to validate the haematinic potentials of the aqueous leaf extracts of Ficus exasperata (FEAE) and Telfeira occidentalis (TOAE) administered separately and to establish a possible synergistic interaction when administered concurrently to chloramphenicol- induced anaemic rats.

Materials and Methods: Anaemia was induced by oral administration of chloramphenicol (50 mg/kg) for 2 weeks.  Five (5) non- anaemic rats and Twenty (20) anaemic rats were used in this study. The non – anaemic rats served as non- anaemic control and received 1ml dist. H2O. The 25 anaemic rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each (groups 2- 6). Group 2 served as anaemic control and received 1 ml dist. H2O, group 3 served as positive control (reference drug) and received ferrous gluconate (900 mg/kg) while groups 4- 6 received  FEAE (200 mg/kg), TOAE (200 mg/kg) and FEAE (100 mg/kg) + TOAE (100 mg/kg) respectively. Treatment was carried out once daily for 7 days after which the rats were bled for determination of PCV, Hb and WBC count.

Results: Chloramphenicol induced a significant decrease PVC and Hb indicating anaemia and also resulted to a significant increase in WBC count. Aqueous leaves extracts of Ficus exasperata and Telfeira occidentalis produced significant increase in PCV and Hb with a corresponding decrease in WBC after 7 days of oral administration to anaemic rats. The anti- anaemic effect observed with co-administration of the extracts was however, significantly more than either of the extract administered alone.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the extracts of Ficus exasperata and Telfeira occidentalis show synergistic effect when co-administered. This could be useful in the management of   anaemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Plasma Haemoglobin Concentration in Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine-1(CPDA-1) Stored Blood

Evelyn Mgbeoma Eze, Serekara Gideon Christian, Ransom Baribefii Jacob, Zacchaeus Awortu Jeremiah, Iminabo Diada Walter Chuku

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i330101

Aim: This study assessed the level of plasma haemoglobin concentration in CPDA-1 stored blood with a view to determine the extent of haemolysis during the 35 days storage period.

Study Design:  This is an observational and comparative case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted using healthy male donors residing in Port Harcourt. Analysis was carried out at the Blood Bank of Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, formerly Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH), Port Harcourt, Nigeria, from February 1st to March 8th, 2017.

Methodology: Blood for transfusion was collected from prospective male blood donor found to be in good health, aged between 18 and 52 years, with haemoglobin level within the range of 13.5 g/dl – 16 g/dl, body weight within 55 kg – 75 kg, and body temperature within 37.0 to 37.50C / 99.50F, into plastic bags containing anticoagulant CPDA-1, and handled under strict sterile condition to prevent bacterial contamination. The blood was stored in a blood bank refrigerator with a constant temperature of +2 to +60C under proper inspection at intervals for colour, turbidity, haemolysis and clot formation. Two milliliters of the sample was collected aseptically at different interval days of collection from the blood bag and analyzed using the HemoCue photometer.

Results: Results showed no significant changes in plasma haemoglogin from day 1, 5, and 10, while significant increase in haemolysis occurred from day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 (p = 0.000), a significant increase (p<0.05) in plasma haemoglobin was observed from day 15 to day 35 of storage.

Conclusion: It is pertinent therefore to note that the use of CPDA-1 does not completely stop the changes that occur in RBC as there are several changes occurring in stored blood collectively called “storage lesions”. Therefore, it is advisable that blood should be transfused within 14 days of storage to avoid transfusion of blood products that has lost most of its benefits to recipients, and where possible whole blood should be processed and components separated before storage to reduce the level of non-viable red blood cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Blood Donation Practices among Students of a Nigerian University

Ugwu, N. I., Ugwu C. N., Oti W. J. O., Uneke C. J.

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i330102

Background: Blood transfusion service is an indispensable component of health care. Despite the increased demand for blood, the supply of safe blood has been inadequate.

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of blood donation practices among medical students in Abakaliki.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at Ebonyi State University Abakaliki between October 2017 and March 2018. Stratified sampling technique was used to recruit participants from medical students using pre-tested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire, to assess their pattern of blood donation practices. Data was analysed using SPSS software, version 20.

Results:  One hundred and fifty eight medical students who participated in the study were made up of 90 (58.4%) males and 68 (41.6%) females. The most prevalent age group was 20 to 25years. One hundred and forty three (93%) of the participants were single. The most common blood group was O Rh positive, followed by A Rh positive then B Rh positive while AB Rh negative was the least. Majority of the participants have never donated blood. The minority who have ever donated blood, donated either once or twice and the donation was made for a family member or friend.

Conclusion: Participants were found to have poor pattern of blood donation practices. Misconception, fear, cultural and religious influences deter people from practicing voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. Conducting awareness and enlightenment programs regularly will help to keep them well informed and motivated to practice voluntary non-remunerated blood donation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Blood Donors at Madhya Pradesh, India: A Retrospective Study

Prakriti Gupta, Dharmesh Chandra Sharma, Umesh Chandra Yadav, Jyoti Bindal, K. K. Pandey

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i330103

Background: Viral hepatitis is a global health problem with 170 million Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) carriers worldwide, and 12-13 million HCV carriers in India.

Unscreened blood and components play a significant role in transmission of HCV apart from reuse of injection needles, unsterilized surgical equipments and vertical transmission from mother to child.  Unsafe blood transfusion not only poses risk to patients, causing significant morbidity and mortality, but also adds to the economical burden on healthcare system.

Aims and Objectives: Aim of this study is to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV infection among the voluntary and relative donors over a period of 7 years at blood banks of Madhya Pradesh with collaboration of Madhya Pradesh State AIDS control Society (MPSACS) Bhopal, India from 2011 to 2017.

Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of blood donation at blood banks, of Madhya Pradesh, India.  Blood units were screened for TTIs from January 2011 To December 2017. HIV, HCV and HBV tests were done by ELISA. Data of HCV was collected and compared statistically by frequency distribution and percentage proportion. Chi Square (χ 2) test was used to determine the significant difference statistically.

Results: The mean age of donors was 32.4 2 ± 8.63 years. Major contribution was from male donors (93.8%). Majority of donation was done voluntarily (87.3 %).  Out of the total 1,876,219 donors tested for TTIs over 7 years, 1980 (0.11%) were positive to anti HCV (p=.000001).

Conclusion: The prevalence of HCV infection was 0.11% among blood donors of Madhya Pradesh, with geographic variation among districts. Aiming to provide safe blood to the patients, prevention of transmission of HCV by proper donor counseling and screening of the unit is required.