Open Access Original Research Article

Antipuritive Effect of Aqueous Root Extracts of Moringa oliefera on Alcohol-induced Haematoxicity in Wistar Rats

Grace Ekpo, Eteng Ofem, Stella Bassey, Kenyoh Abam, Iwara Arikpo, Joe Enobong, Saviour Ufot, Victor Ekam

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i430104

Aim: The study is aimed at investigating the antinutritive effects of aqueous root extract of Moringa oleifera on haematological indices following sub-chronic consumption of alcohol in Wistar rats.

Methods and Materials: Thirty (30) experimental rats weighing 100-120 g were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1, the normal control group was given just rat feed and water, group 2, negative control was administered alcohol only (1.5 ml/kg body weight), rats in group 3, 4 and 5 received combined administration of alcohol 1.5 ml/kg body weight and 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Moringa oleifera respectively, group 6 rats were administered 250 mg/body weight of extract only. At the end of fourteen days (14) the experimental rats were then sacrificed, and blood was collected for haematological analysis.

Results: The result obtained shows a dose-dependent response in almost all the parameters, white blood cell (WBC) count increases significantly(P<0.05) with 600 mg/kg while dose 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/g shows no significant change. Red blood cells (RBC) decreases non-significantly (P<0.05) with increased amount of aqueous Moringa root extract.  Likewise, there was also a dose-dependent decrease in the haematological count and more noticeable with 200 mg/kg dose. It was also observed that mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) increases in all the treatment groups with significant observed in 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg. The increase in alcohol can bring about suppression of the blood cells production, enhance if there is reduction in the red blood cells, it, therefore, implies that the will be reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the red blood cells, that would be carried to the tissues as well as the level of carbon dioxide returned to the lungs. Also, the PCV is involved in the transport of oxygen and absorption of the nutrient. Therefore, increase in PCV, shows a better transportation and thus results in an increase in both primary and secondary polycythemias.

Conclusion: This research work shows that the plant extract contains some bioactive component or phytochemical constituents that are capable of ameliorating the toxicity effect of alcohol on animal models.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haemoglobin and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocine-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Ethanol Extract of a Herbal Mixture (Aju Mbaise)

A. T. Nnadiukwu, C. C. Monago-Ighorodje, L. C. Chuku

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i430105

Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Aju Mbaise herbal mixture on some haematological indices of diabetic Wistar albino rats.

Sample: Packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration was estimated in diabetic rats treated with ethanol extract of Aju Mbaise herbal mixture.

Study Design: In the course of the experiment, fifty-four (54) rats with initial weight range of 30 – 40 g were grouped into 6 of 9 rats per group. The first group served as the normal control (NC) while the remaining five groups were induced with diabetes type 2 using high-fat diet for 8 weeks and streptozotocin at 35 mg/kg body weight. Group II served as the diabetic control while the remaining groups (III, IV, V & VI) were treated with metformin and three different concentrations of the plant extract respectively.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Animal house of the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, between July 2018 and January 2019.

Methodology: The haemoglobin and packed cell volume were estimated after 4th, 8th and 12th week of treatment using MINDRAY Auto-Haematology analyzer.

Results: From the results obtained, it was observed that the diabetic control group has a PCV and haemoglobin concentration that is significantly (P<.05) lower when compared to that of the normal control group and the other treated groups.

Conclusion: The study has shown that Aju Mbaise herbal mixture is a haematopoietic agent as it had the tendency to synthesize blood cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adverse Events Encountered in Platelet Aphaeresis Procedure and Their Management: A Retrospective Study

Prakriti Gupta, Dharmesh Chandra Sharma, Umesh Chandra Yadav, Jyoti Bindal

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i430106

Background: Platelet aphaeresis is an essential procedure, which meets the demand of single donor platelets (SDP) effectively. The procedure is well tolerated by donors with fewer side effects. Adverse events in Platelet aphaeresis have been reported from as low as 0.32 to 6.81%.

Aims and Objectives:  The aim of present study is to ascertain adverse events observed in a large cohort of platelet aphaeresis procedures and determining management strategies to resolve them.

Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study, from January 2012 to May 2019 in Blood Bank, Department of Pathology, in a tertiary care centre in Central India. Donors for Platelet aphaeresis were selected based on the standard criteria of National Aids Control Organization (NACO) guidelines 2017 and Platelet aphaeresis protocol. Leukoreduced SDP were collected by Haemonetics® MCS +, having Leukoreduction bag system. Adverse events encountered were noted and categorized.

Results: A total number of 1600 Plateletpheresis procedures were conducted to prepare SDP and transfused to 1054 patients. A total of 24 out of 1600 plateletaphaeresis procedures reported adverse events (1.5%). Donor related adverse events were 16 (66.6%), Kit related 4 (16.66%) procedure related were 4 (16.66%). Three out of 24 procedures were terminated prematurely, 1 due to severe hypocalcaemia (ACD effect) in donor and 2 due to bowl leakage.

Conclusion: Platelet aphaeresis is a safe procedure for donors if done expertly while exercising caution. Adverse events reported are minimal and manageable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Blood Storage Effect Using CPDA-1 on Packed Cell Volume, Oxyhaemoglobin and Methaemoglobin in Different ABO/Rhesus Blood Types

Serekara Gideon Christian, Evelyn Mgbeoma Eze, Ndueghe Ebenezer Nkom

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i430108

Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of blood storage using CPDA-1 on packed cell volume, methaemoglobin and oxyhaemoglobin in different ABO/Rhesus blood types donated by some residents of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Study Design: This is a comparative study aimed at evaluating the effect of storage on the levels of methaemoglobin, oxyhaemoglobin and packed cell volume using CPDA-1. A total of eight donors were recruited with each sample obtained from the eight (8) known blood groups A+,B+,O+,AB+,    A-,B-,O-,AB- and analysis of samples were in triplicate. The donors were adult males with age ranging from 35-45 years and they were apparently healthy and free from transfusion transmissible infections. The different blood group samples were stored for 30 days and samples for analysis were collected at 5 days interval.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. All blood donors were residents of Port Harcourt. Blood donated was stored at Military Hospital Blood Bank, Port Harcourt, in a blood bag of 450 ml containing 63 ml of citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 (CPDA-1). The analysis was carried out at Rivers State University, Post Graduate Laboratory within March 1st to May 27th, 2019.

Methodology: A total of eight (8) different ABO/Rhesus blood types (A+,B+,AB+,O+,A-,B-,AB- and O-) were collected and stored using a blood bank refrigerator at temperature of 4°C. Day 0 was taken to be control and 5 days intervals in-between to day 30 acted as the test. Packed cell volume was estimated using micro-haematocrit method while oxyhaemoglobin and methaemoglobin levels were estimated spectrophotometrically as described by Evelyn and Malloy.

Results: The result showed a significant decrease in mean packed cell volume, oxyhaemoglobin and methaemoglobin levels compared to a higher mean of these parameters in the control; and  these differences were statistically significant (p<0.05) across all blood groups under study. The decrease in values were as a result of haemolysis that occurs during storage.

Conclusion: Storage of blood irrespective of the blood group type using CPDA-1 for 30 days indicates that there are “storage lesions”. This is attributed to red cell haemolysis and ageing of red blood cells. In general, all blood types showed no significant difference in their haematological (packed cell volume, methaemoglobin, oxyhaemoglobin) characteristic deterioration or storage lesion based on blood type differences. It is therefore necessary to state that storage lesion characteristics are the same irrespective of the blood type, and that fresh blood be transfused, and if blood is stored, prolonged storage beyond 10 days should be avoided.

Open Access Short Research Article

Can Histochemical c-mpl Positivity in Bone Marrow be a Predictor for Splenectomy in Immune Thrombocytopenia?

Irfan Yavasoglu, Nadide Gencer, Fulden Cantas, Firuzan Doger, Zahit Bolaman

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i430107

Purpose: Splenectomy is used as the second line therapy in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). However, there is no parameter predicting splenectomy decision. Thrombopoietin is the main regulator of platelet count through its receptor c-mpl. The aim of the present study was to evaluate immune histochemical Cloned Myeloid Leukemia Virus (c-mpl) positivity in bone marrow specimens of ITP patients with or without splenectomy indications.

Methods: Pre-splenectomy bone marrow was stained for c-mpl, that was taken from 24 patients with ITP and who had splenectomy as well as bone marrow samples from 30 patients with ITP who did not have splenectomy.

Results: c-mpl negativity was higher in splenectomized patients (n: 23) compared to patients without splenectomy (n:18). A significant difference was found for platelet counts before and after splenectomy. Our study show that, c-mpl positivity was statistically significant in patient group who did not have splenectomy. In the patient group who had the splenectomy, c-mpl was not associated with refractory status. 

Conclusion: The significant level of c-mpl negativity might be the useful parameter for splenectomy indication in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.