Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Hematological Impact of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infected Persons on Antiretroviral Drugs (ARDs) in Nigeria

Ya’aba Yakubu, Mohammed Shehu Busu, Nfongeh Joseph Fuh, Olatunji Kazeem Toyosi, Abubakar Aisha, Usoroh Mary, Daniel Oluwaseun Christiana, Abdulmumin Adam Raji

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v10i130109

Introduction: Biochemical and hematological abnormalities are among most common clinico-pathological manifestations of HIV/AIDS infected persons on antiretroviral drugs (ARDs). Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection are known to influence progression and management of HIV infection. Data are limited regarding the impact of ARDs on HIV/HCV co-infected persons in Nigeria. Hence, this study evaluated the biochemical and hematological impact of HCV on prognosis of HIV persons taking ARDs.

Materials and Methods: 2,322 HIV infected persons were screened for HCV. One hundred and nine were co-infected with HCV; and were cross-sectional monitored on ARDs for fifteen months at hospitals in North Central Nigeria for changes in clinical profiles. The determination of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Packed cell volume (PCV) and White blood cells count (WBC) estimations were reviewed every 3 months for each of the person using Reflotron plus machine and hematological analyzer according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Results: The results showed an increase in both HIV mono-infected and co-infected patients, with raised in AST from 18.46±0.73 to 34.32±0.6053U/l, ALT from 19.37±0.6804 to 34.87±0.5637U/l, PCV from 34.20±0.2998 to 34.89±0.4895% and WBC from 3.50x109±0.0816 to 6.67x109±0.1204 cells/L and AST from 17.35±0.1542 to 34.49±0.0981U/l, ALT from 17.67±0.1412 to 34.80±0915U/l, PCV from 36.74±0.2902 to 38.37±0.4399% and WBC from 3.90x109±0.0251 to 6.19x109±0.0178 cells/L.

Conclusion: It was found that PCV and WBC count values were positively affected despite HCV replication and AST and ALT enzyme levels for both HIV-mono and co-infected persons were slightly elevated. Therefore, efforts addressing viral hepatitis co-infections at the early stage of ARDs initiation under qualified clinician should be of paramount important.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Electrolytes and Red Blood Cell Membrane Potential of Hypertensive Patients

Nwadike Constance, Nosiri Chidi Ijeoma, Eze Adindu, Onyeabo Chimaraoke, Ezekwe Ahamefula Sunday, Onyejiekwe Catherine

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v10i130110

Serum electrolyte and red blood cell membrane potential of hypertensive patients in Owerri metropolis were investigated. A total of 50 volunteer subjects were used for the study.  Thirty (30) of the volunteer subjects were hypertensive subjects and were used as test subjects; while the remaining 20 subjects were healthy subjects with normal blood pressure used as normentensive subjects (control). Results observed showed increased red blood cell (RBC) K+ and Cl- in hypertension subjects against normentensive subjects. Apart from K+ which reduced significantly (p<0.05), other electrolyte ions of the serum increased significantly (p<0.05) in hypertensive subjects against normentensive subjects. However, Na+ and Cl- membrane potential was not significantly (p>0.05) altered in hypertensive subjects against normotensive subjects while K+ was significantly (p<0.05) altered. The observed alterations in the parameters investigated in hypertensive subjects in the present study could be as a result of a host of derangements involving electrolyte metabolism, altered membrane transport and a possible increase in membrane fragility. This study has shown the serum electrolyte and red blood cell membrane potential of hypertensive patients in Owerri metropolis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Ferritin Level in Children of 6 to 59 Months in the Eastern Region of Cameroon

Sylvie D. Agokeng, Claude T. Tayou, Jules Clement N. Assob, Anna L. Njunda

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v10i130112

Aim: Ferritin reflects total iron storage and is also the first laboratory index to decline with iron deficiency. It may be less accurate in children with infectious or inflammatory conditions as an acute phase reactant. Considering the fact that Cameroonian children live in malaria endemic and high risk hookworm infection area, our objective was to study factors affecting Ferritin level including socio-demographic data, child nutrition, anaemia and inflammatory status.

Study Design: A case control study was carried out with anaemic children as cases and non-anaemic as controls.

Place and Duration: Paediatric and laboratory units of the Bertoua regional Hospital, from November 2018 to January 2019.

Methodology: A case control study was carried out in children of 6 to 59 months attending the Bertoua regional hospital. Data were collected and blood distributed in EDTA and dry tubes for full blood count, C - reactive protein (CRP) and Ferritin analysis. Obtained data were analysed with SPSS 21.0 using Pearson’s Chi Square test.

Results: 126 children were included, 63 anaemic (Haemoglobin<11 g/dL) as cases and 63 non anaemic as controls. The Mean age of children was 27.3+/- 15.4 months, the mean haemoglobin was 10.4+/- 1.6 g/dL. Ferritin as state by WHO for the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia, was below 30 μg/L in 3.2% independently of anaemic status. Inflammation tested by CRP occurred in 37.3% of children. When the ferritin cut-off value was shifted to 50 μg/L, Ferritin was low in 9.5% thus approaching the stated frequency of iron deficiency obtained recentlyin Cameroon. Mean Ferritin level was 346.5 μg/L.

Conclusion:  The relatively high level of Ferritin showed that iron storage seems to remain intact in most children despite anaemic or inflammatory status. The level of Ferritin in children is highly dependent on haem iron consumption and food diversification also has a role to play.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Impact of Some Selected Plants on Haematological Parameters of Testosterone and Estradiol Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Adult Male Rats

Melvin Nnaemeka Ugwu, Atamgba Agbor Asuk, Mbeh Ubana Eteng, Edward Odey Emuru

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v10i130113

Background: Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease of unknown etiology, characterized by prostate enlargement. The effect of Prosopis africana (PA), Vernonia amydalina (VA) and Ocimum gratissmum (OG), plant extracts on haematological parameters of BPH animal model was investigated.

Methods: BPH was induced in 45 male Wistar rats (250-350 g) by exogenous injection of testosterone and estradiol in staggered doses for 3 weeks. To confirm BPH induction, some animals were sacrificed; histological inspection of prostate gland and PSA was carried out. Forty BPH induced rats were divided into 8 groups. Group 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6 were treated with 50 mg/kg bw and 100 mg/kg bw doses of PA, VA and OG extracts respectively. Group 7 received finasteride (0.1 mg/kg bw). Group 8 BPH control and five rats without induction constitute group 9, the normal control and both received distilled water. After 45 days, the rats were anaesthetised by a brief exposure to trichloromethane vapour and 5 ml of blood was collected from the rats through cardiac puncture and dispensed into well-labelled EDTA containers to avoid coagulation. All analyses were completed within 24 h of sample collection.

Results: Results showed that induction of BPH caused a significant (P< 0.05) enlargement of prostate gland when compared to normal control. All extracts produced significant (P<0.05) reduction in the weight of the enlarged prostate when compared to the BPH control. There were significant (P ˂0.05) decline in RBC, PCV and Hb of BPH control when compared to the normal control and treated groups. In the treated groups the administration of the extracts and standard drug exhibited an increase in RBC, PCV and Hb concentration when compared with the BPH control. Also there was significant (P < 0.05) increase in the WBC, neutrophils, platelets, monocytes, lymphocytes and eosinophils levels in BPH control when compared to normal control and treated groups. In all treated groups there was significant decrease in WBC, neutrophils, platelets, monocytes, lymphocytes and eosinophils concentration levels when compared with the BPH control group.

Conclusion: The result of this study indicates that the extracts have the potential to reverse the inflammation caused by BPH and also have the capacity to boost the numbers of red blood cells probably by inhibiting the hemolysis caused by inflammatory factors or by enhancing the production of red blood cell from the bone marrow.

Open Access Case Study

Nocardiosis Associated with Novel Agents at Relapsed Multiple Myeloma: Case Series

Atakan Turgutkaya, Zahit Bolaman, Emel Ceylan, Murat Telli, Berna Gültekin Korkmazgil, Can Karaman, İrfan Yavaşoğlu

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v10i130111

Nocardiosis is a gram positive bacterial infection caused by aerobicactinomycetes. It’s nonspesific presentation and radiographic findings usually make it undiagnosed with highly fatal outcomes. The patients with intracelluler defects are prone to nocardiosis. Multiplemyelom(MM) itself is a mainly humoral deficiency disorder because of defective antibodies but recent drugs such as proteasome inhibitors and immuno modulatory drugs also cause cellular deficiency. Here we presented two definite and oneprobable pulmonary nocardiosis patients who have a diagnosis of MM, autologou shematopoetic stem cell transplant history in their past and anti myeloma therapy presently.