Open Access Review Article

L-PRF Membrane (Fibrin Rich in Platelets and Leukocytes) and Its Derivatives (A-PRF, i-PRF) are Helpful as a Basis of Stem Cells in Regenerative Injury Treatment: Trial Work on the Horse

Alessandro Crisci, Maria Chiara Barillaro, Giovanni Lepore, Federica Cardillo

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v10i230117

Developing a multidisciplinary field of tissue engineering aims to recover, improve or supplant typically damaged or missing tissues for a collection of conditions brought about by trauma, malady and old age. To guarantee that tissue engineering techniques are generally relevant in the clinical setting, it is important to adjust them so that they are promptly accessible and moderately simple to use in the everyday clinical schedule. Consequently, the steps between preparation and application must be limited and improved to make them practical in application. The general objective of creating platelet concentrates of natural origin can be delivered near the patient to quicken the implantation procedure, being monetarily practical for the patient and the health framework. Fibrin rich in platelets and leukocytes (PRF) and its derivatives (L-PRF, A-PRF, i-PRF) has been utilized in a wide collection of medical fields for delicate tissue restoration. Practically all platelets (> 97%) are missing within test-tubes in groups tested after PRF membrane extraction. Growth Factors liberated by platelets contained in derivatives of L-PRF induce and control the proliferation and migration of other cell types, associated with tissue repair, similar to smooth cell muscles (SMCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Conclusively, the outcomes of this work feature the positive effects of PRF on wound healing after regenerative treatment for the administration of different delicate tissue defects found in wound care.

Open Access Review Article

Beta Thalassemia Major: Overview of Molecular Etiology, Pathophysiology, Current and Novel Therapeutic Approaches

S. El Kababi, B. El Khalfi, K. El Maani, A. Soukri

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v10i230118

Major beta thalassemia is a severe form of thalassemia caused by the alteration of two beta globin genes resulting in a defective synthesis of hemoglobin.

It is characterized by chronic severe anemia, ineffective erythropoiesis (IE) and iron overload. However although the thransfusion and chelation assosciated constitute the basis of the traitement curently recommended, they do not allow always to control the iron overload induced by pathology and repeated transfusions.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has proven to be a definitive treatment for beta thalassemia. However, this procedure is confronted to immunological complications and the small nomber of histocompatible donors. In the face of these therapeutic blocks, much research has been undertaken in recent years leading to the development of a number of promising therapeutic strategies in order to reduce the constraints linked to current chronic treatments, and to move towards an access to healing for all patients. Among other three approaches are envisaged and are in the experimental phase: Gene therapy to restore globin chain imbalance, Improve ineffective erythropoiesis and Improve iron dysregulation. In this article we give a view on the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, genetic origin of beta-thalassaemia major. The second part presents the therapeutic arsenal currently used, and its limits leading to therapeutic impasse. The last part explores the scientific tracks that present a real therapeutic potential in β-Thalassemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glutathione and Bilirubin Concentrations as Markers of Oxidative Stress Measured among Sickle Cell Anaemia Subjects Attending University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar Nigeria

E. E. Onukak, E. C. Akwiwu, J. O. Akpotuzor, A. O. Okafor, A. E. Onukak

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v10i230114

Aims: This study aimed at examining the oxidative stress level of sickle cell anaemia subjects using glutathione and bilirubin levels as markers as well as the red cell parameters.

Study Design: Case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar-Nigeria, between August 2018 and July 2019.

Methodology: Subjects comprised 45 SCA patients (27 females, 18 males; age range 10-45 years) attending clinic at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar, Nigeria and equal number of age and sex-matched control subjects with Hb AA. Blood samples were collected and analyzed by standard methods. The red cell parameters were analysed by automation using FY-Smart-1 auto haematology analyzer. Bilirubin assay was performed using the colorimetric method, while glutathione was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique.

Results: The red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, and haematocrit values of SCA subjects were significantly lower (p=0.001) compared to values from control subjects, while the red cell indices and red cell distribution width values were increased in SCA subjects (p=0.001). The Total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin were significantly increased (p=0.001) among SCA subjects, while the glutathione concentration values were reduced (p=0.001) when compared to values obtained from control subjects.

Conclusion: SCA subjects have marked red cell size variation, lymphocytosis and thrombocytosis. The haemolytic events that occur in sickle cell anaemia results in glutathione depletion.

Open Access Original Research Article

The KAPP Study of Malaria and its Prevalence amongst Boarding School Students in Gboko Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria

N. Amagu, V. U. Obisike, E. U. Amuta

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v10i230115

Malaria is a life-threatening parasitic disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium and is one of the most important parasitic diseases of man globally especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This research was done to assess malaria infection and its relationship with the knowledge, attitude, perception and prevention among students of boarding schools in Gboko Local Government Area. Five boarding schools within Gboko Local Government were selected for the study. A total of 370 students were sampled to represent the population. Malaria in the schools selected for this study was determined through malaria test via the examination of stained thick blood smears under the microscope. Structured questionnaires were administered to the participants to get information pertaining to their demography, knowledge, attitude, perception and preventive methods towards malaria. Thick blood films were stained using Romanowsky Field Stains. Chi-square was used for comparing infections and to determine the significant relationships at 95% level of significance. The results showed an overall prevalence of 20.8%. The prevalence of malaria was higher among female students (22.3%) than in male students (19.5%). Malaria was found most (10.8%) among students who use insecticide treated nets (ITNs). This study revealed that the knowledge and ownership of insecticide treated net (ITN) was high (86.2%) among the students. However, only 60.0% of the ITN owners actually use it. Thirteen percent of the students have phobia for the use of ITN while many students do not use the ITN for diverse perceived reasons. The treatment seeking behavior of the students showed that majority of the students (84.9%) access the school clinic when they have fever. This study has revealed that there are misconceptions on the knowledge of malaria among students and these are some of the factors leading to the risk and exposure of students to the bites of mosquitoes. The perceived beliefs on malaria in this study have no scientific basis and can easily be overcome through proper health education. Providing a mosquito free environment and promoting ITN usage as well as use of mosquito repellent cream among boarding school students may help achieve the desired protection against mosquito bites and subsequently prevent malaria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Blood Donation Practices of Tertiary Level Students in South Eastern Nigeria: Prevalence and Determinants

Chukwuma B. Duru, Uche R. Oluoha, Anthony C. Iwu, Chinyere M. Aguocha, Ikechi Ohale, Emmanuel N. Ndukwu, Ernest Nwaigbo, Nnamdi P. Okafor

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v10i230116

Introduction: Safe and adequate blood donation is critical in saving millions of lives annually. In many developing including Nigeria, there is paucity of blood donors.

Aim: In this study, we assessed the blood donation practices of tertiary level students in Imo State, South East Nigeria as well as its prevalence and determinants.

Methodology: Multistage sampling technique was used. Stage one involved the stratification of the institutions into universities and non-universities. In stage two, one university and one non -university was selected using simple random method. Stage three involved the selection of study participants from the student registry using systematic sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was the study instrument. Data analysis was with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM – SPSS) version 20.

Results: Six hundred (600) undergraduates participated in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 21.3 ± 5.0 years. The one year prevalence of blood donation in this study was 13.8% and 63.1% of the non-donors were willing to donate.  Respondents aged 15 – 29 years more willing to donate blood compared to those aged 30 – 44 years (OR = 3.03, p = 0.0003), those that were single were 4 times more willing to donate in comparison to those that were married/divorced (OR = 4.02, p < 0.0001). Respondents that were of Catholic faith were also more willing to donate compared to those that were of Pentecostal/Orthodox denomination (OR = 2.72, p = <0.0001). Class distribution and residence were not independent predictors of willingness to donate blood.

Conclusion: From the findings in this study, it was obvious that the willingness to donate blood is far greater than the actual act of donating blood. There is need to continue to reach out to those willing to donate but do not know how to go about it.