Open Access Original Research Article

Kell Blood Group Antigens Not Found in Indigenes of Ogoni Ethnic Group of Rivers State, Nigeria

Serekara Gideon Christian, Evelyn Mgbeoma Eze, Anthony Chijioke Uzoanya Ezimah, Fiekumo Igbida Buseri

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2020/v11i130119

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and percentage distribution of Kell blood group antigens in indigenes of Ogoni ethnic group of Rivers State, Nigeria.

Study Design:  This was a cross-sectional study carried out among indigenes of Ogoni whose first generational parental origin is Ogoni. A total of 101 subjects (49 females and 52 males), within the age of 30–60 years were recruited for the study and they were apparently healthy and free from transfusion transmissible infections upon serological screening.

Place and Duration of Study: Ogoniland is located in an area along the Niger Delta Eastern edge, and to the north-east of the Imo River and Port Harcourt city. Ogoniland covers about 1036 Sq Km and borders the Bay of Guinea. All participants were recruited in Bori. Bori is the traditional headquarter of Ogoni. Bori is located on latitude: 4040ʹ34.64ʺ N and longitude: 7021ʹ54.68ʺ E. The analysis was carried out at the Post Graduate Laboratory of Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Port Harcourt, the capital of Rivers State, is located on latitude 4.750N and longitude 7.000E and lies along Bonny River in the Niger Delta. All subjects were recruited the same day and their blood samples collected on 2nd October, 2019, and analysis conducted on 3rd October, 2019.

Methodology: Identification of Kell blood group antigens was done using Anti-Kell monoclonal reagent, prepared by Lorne Laboratories Ltd, UK. Lot No: 76090-A5; Expiry Date: 2021/02/21. Phenotyping of red cells was done using tube method as described by Lorne Laboratory Ltd.

Results: The result showed zero frequency of occurrence and percentage distribution of Kell blood group antigen in the studied population (49 males and 52 females).

Conclusion: The presence of Kell blood group antigens in indigenes of Ogoni recruited for the study which serve as representative of the Ogonis was rare. It is therefore necessary to take into cognizance that haemolytic transfusion reactions due to Kell antigens and antibodies will rarely occur, and as such Kell blood group is not significant in blood transfusion and in antenatal and blood group serology amongst the Ogonis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of ABO, Rhesus D and Subgroups of ABO among Blood Donors in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

A. B. Ibrahim, H. Attahiru, O. Erhabor, P. F. Udomah, A. Yakubu, H. A. Buhari, H. M. Ahmed, F. U. Onuigwe, D. Isah, M. U. Kalgo, U. Abubakar

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 6-13
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2020/v11i130120

ABO, Rhesus D and subgroups of ABO are highly immunogenic and are the common cause of antibody production in mismatched blood transfusions, haemolytic transfusion reaction and maternal alloimmunization. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of ABO, Rh D and subgroups of ABO among blood donors attending Specialist Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria. ABO, Rhesus D and subgroups of ABO antigen status of 176 blood donors with mean age of 30.44 ± 8.210 years attending Specialist Hospital Sokoto were determined using tile method for ABO and Rh D and conventional tube method for anti- A1, anti- H reagents for ABO subgroups respectively. Among the 176 subjects tested, blood group O+ was the most frequent group with 93 (52.8%), 39 (22.2%) were blood group B+, 37(21.0%) were blood group A+, 5 (2.8%) were blood group AB+, 2 (1.1%) were blood group O-. No data was obtained for A-, B- and AB- blood groups.  Out of 37 A blood groups obtained, 31 (83.8%) had A1 antigens and 6 (16.2%) had A2 antigens. Out of the 5 AB blood groups, all had A1B antigens. The study also shows that there was statistically significant difference between blood group A and ethnic groups (Hausa, Fulani and Yoruba) (p<0.05). Blood group O was found to be the most frequent followed by B, A and AB except among Hausa which revealed a pattern of O> A> B> AB. ABO, subgroups shows majority had A1 followed by A2 and A1B respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haemostatic Effects of Ethanolic Extracts of Amaranthus hybridus on Wistar Rats

B. C. Chinko, F. S. Amah-Tariah

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2020/v11i130121

Introduction: Haemostasis refers to the arrest of bleeding due to vascular damage and involves the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways which converge at the point of fibrin activation to stop or minimize blood loss. Amaranthus hybridus contains a while range of nutritional, chemical and phytochemical constituents which gives it wide range of applications in folk medicine.

Aim: To evaluate the effects of ethanolic extracts of Amaranthus hybridus on blood platelet count, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) using Wistar rat models.

Methodology: Twenty Four (24) adult male Wistar rats were used for the study. The animals were randomly divided into three (3) groups of eight (8) animals each. Oral administration of distilled water for the control group and ethanolic extracts of Amaranthus hybridus at 30 and 60 mg/kg lasted for twenty eight (28) days. Platelet count, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were determined using standard laboratory methods.

Results: Ethanolic extracts of Amaranthus hybridus significantly increased platelet count at 30 mg and 60 mg/kg compared to the control animals (p<0.05). Also, it significantly reduced prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time at 30 and 60 mg/kg in a dose dependent manner compared to control animals (P<0.05).  

Conclusion: The study shows that ethanolic extract of Amaranthus hybridus may have enhanced haemostasis as demonstrated by increased platelet count and reduced prothrombin (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Sickle Cell Disease among University Students in Port Harcourt

Tamuno-Opubo Abiye, Stanley Rosemary Oluchi, Ezeugwu Sampson Ibekwe, Chimenem Simple Tamuno-Opubo

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2020/v11i130122

Background: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a hereditary haemoglobinopathy that has been related with significant mortality in Nigeria. Knowledge on cause, prevention and risk factors are important for adequate control of the occurrence of SCD.

Methods: A cross sectional study on the awareness of SCD was carried out among undergraduate students in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was interviewer-administered to 146 students.

Results: The study showed that 97.9% claim to have heard about sickle cell, while 68.5% indicated that the source of information on sickle cell was in school. One hundred and twenty-seven (87%) indicated that SCD describes abnormal blood cells. In 68.5% the source of information on SCD was in school. Only 42% had a good awareness on SCD. Students of male gender, of less than 20 years, with less average family income were more likely to have poor awareness of SCD.

Conclusion: The study shows the need for improved awareness on SCD and increased awareness campaigns on every available media platform.

Open Access Original Research Article

Erythrocyte Phenotyping in ABO, RH and Kell Blood Group Systems in the Donor and Recipient of Blood Products at the Yaounde University and Hospital Center

B. Chetcha Chemegni, A. Ndoumba, Jiatsa Bogning, E. Lontsi, C. Tayou Tagne, D. Mbanya

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 31-37
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2020/v11i130123

In order to prevent post transfusion alloimmunization, it is essential to give recipients compatible blood products. However in countries with limited income, blood grouping is limited to the ABO system and to the D antigen of the Rhesus system; however, there are other immunogenic antigens such as C, c, E, e and K to name a few. This should be the reason why a retrospective study by Tayou et al. at the blood bank of the University Hospital Center (CHU) of Yaoundé in 2009 on the erythrocyte phenotype in the donor and recipient of blood product only reported to us that data relate to the erythrocyte blood group system ABO and the Rh 1 antigen. We therefore found it expedient to carry out erythrocyte phenotyping in the ABO, RH and KELL blood group systems in the donor and recipient of blood products at the CHU of Yaoundé.

A descriptive, transversal and prospective study was carried out at the blood bank of the CHU of Yaoundé over 6 months, from June 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017. It was interested in the donor-recipient couples of blood within which the recipient was a patient hospitalized at the CHU. Laboratory analyses of donor and recipient blood samples have allowed us to have the phenotypes in the ABO, RH, and KELL blood group systems.

In the ABO system, the phenotypes obtained were 4: A1, A1B, B and O at 27.27%, 2.27%, 13.64% and 56.82% respectively among donors and 31.82%, 2.27%, 13.64% and 52.27% among recipients. In addition, from the Rhesus system, there were 5 phenotypes in donors: D + C + E + c + e +, D + C + E-c + e +, D + C-E + c + e +, D + CE-c + e +, DCE-c + e + respectively at 2.27%, 11.36%, 9.09%, 75.00% and 2.27% and in recipients 4 phenotypes, namely: D + C + E + c + e +, D + C-E + c + e +, D + CE-c + e +, DCE-c + e + at 15.91%, 27.27%, 54.55% and 2.27% respectively. In the KELL system, the K antigen was present in 4.55% of donors and 2.27% of recipients. An antigen supply from the donor to the recipient was evaluated at 6.82% for C, 4.54% for E, 2.27% for K and 2.27% for K, C, E at the same time. This gave us an estimate of the average risk of alloimmunization at 15.9%.

Erythrocyte phenotyping would therefore be of major benefit during blood transfusion and would considerably prevent the risks of alloimmunization.