Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Plasmodium falciparum Infection Rates among Patients Attending General Hospitals in Benue State, Nigeria

O. A. Adulugba, O. Amali, F. T. Ikpa, M. M. Manyi, V. U. Obisike

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2020/v11i330129

Plasmodium falciparum is the most virulent and prevalent malaria parasite in Nigeria .This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malaria infection among patients at General Hospitals in Benue State. A total of 1200 patients were examined in this study.  Blood samples were collected by finger prick onto clean slides and into the round sample well of PfRDTs. Thick and thin blood films were prepared for microscopic examination. The overall prevalence of malaria infection was 34.8%. A questionnaire was used to determine some demographic factors. Prevalence of malaria in relation to residence, rural area recorded higher prevalence of 42.2% than urban area with prevalence of 23.8%. Chi square analysis showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in prevalence in relation to residence. The Prevalence of malaria in relation to age groups, age between 6-10 and 7-15 recorded higher infection rate of 54.5% and 51.5% respectively. While, age group >46 recorded  17.5%. The female patients 36.2% were more infected than the males 33.1%.Patients that had informal education recorded higher prevalence rate of 89.2% and those that are farmers had 57.9%. Chi square analysis however showed that the difference was significant (p < 0.05). A significant difference  (P<0.05) was observed between patients that  used insecticide spray alone as malaria preventive methods (70.1%) compared to patients that used combined methods of prevention (17.2%). Malaria still remains prevalent among patients in Benue State, Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis by FibroScan in β-Thalassemia Children Infected with Hepatitis C Virus Before and After Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir Therapy

Aya Lotfy Yosef, Hanan Hamed Soliman, Gamal El-Sayed Shiha, Mohiee El-Deen AbdEl-Aziz Awad, Eslam El-Sayed El-Hawary

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2020/v11i330130

Background: Thalassemic children develop liver fibrosis because of liver iron overload and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Transient elastography (FibroScan) can be a reliable non-invasive method for evaluating liver fibrosis in thalassemic patients. Treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LED/SOF) direct acting antiviral agents can significantly affect liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by FibroScan.

Aims: To assess liver fibrosis by non-invasive FibroScan through LSM before and after generic LED/SOF therapy in multi-transfused β-thalassemic children infected with HCV.

Place and Duration of Study: Pediatric Hematology Unit, Tanta University Hospital, from November 2017 to May 2019.

Methodology: Fifty multi-transfused β-thalassemic treatment-naϊve children (aged 12-18 years and weighing ≥35kg) with chronic HCV infection were subjected to clinical evaluation, quantitative HCV PCR assay, FibroScan examination, and calculation of APRI, FIB4 index and AST/ ALT ratio. In addition to standard therapy, generic LED/SOF (90/400 mg) treatment was given for 12 weeks’ duration with follow up for further 12 weeks after end of treatment.

Results: A positive HCV PCR was changed into negative for all studied patients starting from week 4 after treatment. There was highly significant reduction in the LSM values by FibroScan in the studied patients after therapy (p-value <0.001) with median reduction of 19.4 %. The significant reduction in LSM values was particularly prominent in patients with significant (F2) and advanced (F3) liver fibrosis stages as well as cirrhotic patients (F4). There was significant reduction in the values of other non-invasive liver fibrosis markers FIB-4 index, APRI score and AST/ ALT ratio (p-value <0.001, <0.001 and 0.020 respectively) after therapy.

Conclusion: Generic LED/SOF therapy for 12 weeks’ duration resulted in eradication of HCV infection that was associated with significant decrease in LSM by FibroScan particularly those with higher baseline liver fibrosis stages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mineral Content and Antisickling Activity of Annona senegalensis, Alchornea cordifolia and Vigna unguiculata Used in the Management of Sickle Cell Disease in the Kwilu Province (Congo, DR)

Jules M. Kitadi, Clément L. Inkoto, Emmanuel M. Lengbiye, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, K. M. Taba, Blaise M. Mbala, Brigitte Schmitz, Pius T. Mpiana

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 18-27
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2020/v11i330131

Aims: To determine the mineral composition of some plants (Annona senegalensis Pers., Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll. Arg. and Vigna unguiculate (L.) Walp.) used in the management of sickle cell disease by traditional practitioners in Kwilu province and to evaluate their antisickling activity in vitro. 

Study Design: Plant collection in the Kwilu province, sample preparation,  antisickling tests and fluorescence spectrometric analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was performed at the Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, Congo DR, from October 2016 to January 2018.

Methodology: These three plants were harvested in the province of Kwilu in Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mineral composition analysis was carried out using the fluorescence spectrometric method while the in vitro antisickling activity was evaluate using Emmel and hemolysis tests.

Results: Twenty three mineral elements were identified in each of these three plants: Potassium (K), Phosphorus (P), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), Sulphur (S), Chlorine (Cl) and trace elements as: Aluminum (Al), Silicon (Si), Vanadium (V), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se), Brome (Br), Molybdenum (Mo), Tin (Sn), Iodine (I), Barium (Ba) and Lead (Pb). Annona senegalensis Pers., Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll.Arg. and Vigna unguiculate (L.) Walp. aqueous extracts showed the capacity to prevent the sickling and the hemolysis of red blood cells.

Conclusion: The obtained results confirm the antisickling activity thus justifying the use of these plants in Traditional Medicine for the management of sickle cell disease. The presence of some mineral elements like Fe, Zn, Mg and Se are useful for sickle cell disease patients.

Open Access Case Report

Bing-Neel Syndrome – A Challenging Diagnosis: Case Report

Y. Davidkova, N. Simonoski, B. Spassov, G. Balatzenko, M. Guenova

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 28-33
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2020/v11i330132

Bing-Neel syndrome is a rare neurologic complication of Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, characterized by infiltration of the central nervous system by clonal lymphoplasmacytes. We present a rare clinical case of a patient, who one year after the diagnosis of Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, progressed with diverse neurologic presentation and cerebrospinal fluid involvement. The diagnosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging and flow cytometry detection of clonal B-cells in the cerebrospinal fluid. Bing-Neel syndrome should be considered in patients with neurologic symptoms and a history of Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Anemia and Other Blood Symptoms Related Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis: An Internet Approach of Systematic Literature Study Reported Across Indonesia

Forman Erwin Siagian, Esy Maryanti

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 34-47
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2020/v11i330133

Background/Aim: Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis (STH) is still a global major problem, affecting billion vulnerable people of marginalized and unfortunate communities from low to middle level social economic countries. Poor personal hygiene and sanitary practice facilitates its transmission. Children and pregnant women are the most vulnerable group. It causes spectrum of clinical conditions from completely asymptomatic to severe, but anemia and nutritional derangement are the most prominent. Anemia related STH itself was already a huge problem, especially when affected susceptible individuals. In the internet, the data on Indonesia’s prevalence of anemia and other blood symptom related STH with its contributing factors are always considered sparse and incomplete. The aim of this systematic literature study was to provide that data by doing the internet literature searching on Indonesia’s electronic data regarding this condition.

Methods: A systematic review was done using popular search engine in the internet. All kind of research study, no matter the design (cross sectional, case control or prospective cohort), that fit with inclusion criteria which is anemia or other blood related symptoms (e.g. eosinophilia) related to  STH were included.

Result: There were 37 studies found on this issues, from 2001 until 2020. Most studies reported anemia that developed during the course of the disease with the clinical spectrum varies from asymptomatic to severe form.