Open Access Original Research Article

HBV and HEV Co-infections among Animal Handlers and Non-Animal Handlers in Osun State, Nigeria

I. R. Gidado, I. O. Okonko, F. A. Osundare, O. O. Opaleye

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v12i130140

Aim: Co-infection of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E viruses may lead to severe morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to determine prevalence of co-infection of HBV and HEV among animal and non-animal handlers in Osun State, Nigeria.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Nigeria, between June 2015 and July 2019.

Methods: A total of 180 blood samples were obtained and screened for Hepatitis B and E virus from cohorts of 90 animal handlers and 90 non-animal handlers. Questionnaires on HBV and HEV were administered to obtain a demographic characteristic of the participants. HBsAg and anti-HEV antibodies were screened using HBsAg and HEV ELISA kits.

Results: Results showed the overall prevalence of HBV and HEV Co-infection to be 12.2 %. There was variation in the HBV/HEV co-infections rates among the studied population, with a co-infection rates of 15.9%, 14.3% and 7.8% for butchers, pig handlers and non-animal handlers, respectively. Sources of drinking water was the predisposition factor for HBV/HEV coinfections (P=0.02). The results revealed that subjects who used tap and river as a drinking water source had the highest prevalence followed by well and sachet and then all water source. Although results portray no statistically significant association with, frequent washing of hands after, rearing of animal, type of toilet, eating of pork, consumption of grilled meat and cow skin (P> 0.05).

Conclusion: This study reported a high prevalence of HBV/HEV coinfections among animal and non-animal handlers in Osun State, Nigeria. There is, therefore, the need to increase health promotion efforts such as immunization, health education, campaign, provision of adequate blood screening equipment and proper hygiene is recommended for further reduction in HBV/HEV transmission. Since the consumption of contaminated water is the main transmission route of HEV, improving the level of public health sanitation in the area should be considered a priority by policymakers. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Study on the Effects of Goko Cleanser (Herbal Mixture) on Adult Female Wistar Rats

Darlington Nnamdi Onyejike, McWilliams, Winifred Chidera, Mmaju, Chidinma Ifeyinwa, Okeke, Somadina Nnamdi, Obiesie, Ifechukwu Justicia, Eze, Chinyere Elizabeth

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 8-19
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v12i130141

Introduction: Goko cleanser is one of the popular herbal mixtures used by the Nigerian populace. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of this herbal mixture on some haematological parameters of adult female Wistar rats.

Methodology: A total of twenty five Wistar rats weighing about 160 – 280g were divided into five groups according to their corresponding weights. The groups were designated as groups 1 – 5. Group 1 served as the control group, while groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 received 1000mg/Kg, 1500mg/Kg, 2000mg/Kg and 4000mg/Kg respectively.

Results: The TWBC, PCV, PLATELET count, and RBC and Hb showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) increase for the test groups 2 – 5 when compared to the control group. The body weight had a statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in groups 2, 4, and 5; while group 3 had a statistically insignificant (p>0.05) decrease.

Conclusion and Recommendation: This study revealed that Goko Cleanser contains some haemopoietic benefits, but inhibit appetite centres. Hence, this study recommends that further study be carried out on the effects of this herbal mixture on the brain so as to reveal the extent of its effect on the appetite centres.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Factors Associated to Persistent Anemia among Pregnant Women in the Buea Health District, Cameroon

Simon Eyongabane Ako, Bimabam Josiah, Oscar Sakwe, Tembong Nerville, Vicky Tankeu Ndassi

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v12i130142

Introduction: Anemia in pregnancy represents a life-threatening but preventable reason for maternal and childhood morbidity and mortality. Although intervention measures are practiced in most affected countries like Cameroon, the impact of anemia on pregnant women is still apparent in most local communities. The relative contribution of sociodemographic related to anemia throughout gestation varies greatly and warrants investigation in urban and rural communities in developing countries, where the condition is most apparent.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design was carried out from February to July 2019 at six sites, Regional Hospital Buea, Bokwango Integrated Health Center (IHC), Buea - Road IHC, Buea town IHC, Molyko IHC, and Great Soppo IHC. A total of 408 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The sociodemographic characteristics identified through questionnaires filled by the participants included age, marital status, educational status, occupation, gravida status, alcohol intake, iron folate intake, knowledge on anemia and crave for non-food substance. The clinical factors of participants gathered included previous records of diarrhea within the last 6 months, diagnosis for worm infection for the last 6 months, diagnosis for Malaria for the last 6 months. A blood sample was collected and analyzed with a haemoglobinometer ( HemoCue  201+ system, Sweden). SPSS version 22 statistical package software was used to perform the data analysis. Factors related to anemia among participants unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with their 95%CI were calculated using logistic regression models.

Results: The prevalence of anemia was 50 %. Among the anemic study participants 0.74 %, 11.76 %, and 37.50 % recorded severe, moderate, and mild levels of anemia respectively. The majority of the anemic participants 195 (95.6%) and 126 (61.8) had recently been diagnosed for Malaria and worm infections respectively. Craving for non-food substances (Calabar clay) and poor adherence to iron folate intake had a prevalence of 120 (58.8%) and 117 (57.4%) respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that, irregular adherence to iron folate intake and reduce intake of iron folate frequency 2-3 times/week was statistically significantly associated with anemia (p=0.0001 and p= 0.0001 respectively). We equally observed a statistically significant association of alcohol drink consumption and craving for non-food substances (Calabar clay) with anemia (p=0.004 and p=0.0001 respectively). Cases of worm infection for the last 6 months were statistically significantly related to anemia (p = 0.004).

Conclusion: Anemia is high among pregnant women in the Buea health district. Factors associated with persistent anemia despite intervention measures in the community hospitals include malaria; no intake or reduced intake of iron folate; alcohol drinks consumption; craving for non-food substances (Calabar clay) and previously diagnosed worm infection within the last 6 months.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adult Lymphomas in a Tertiary Hospital in South – South Nigeria: A Review of Clinicopathologic Features and Treatment Outcome

Idongesit Samuel Akpan, Michael Olatunde Tanimowo, Ekemini Ignatius Bassey, Enobong Effiong Uboh, Rosalyn Imo Afia

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 28-40
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v12i130143

Background: There has been an increase in the prevalence of Lymphomas in our environment lately. Thorough literature search reveals a limited number of reports on the prevalence of Lymphoma and no information on the clinicopathologic pattern and outcome of treatment of this disease in our centre. Data on the burden of Lymphoma across different regions are important, as there may be variation in incidence in different locations even within the same country. This will keep healthcare providers informed about the current trend of Lymphomas in the region and facilitate prompt and appropriate diagnosis and treatment as well as assist Government agencies in better healthcare planning.

Aim: To determine the burden, clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment outcome of Lymphoma among a cohort of adult patients accessing care in a Referral Hospital in Southern Nigeria

Methods: This was a longitudinal prospective study of all lymphoma cases managed in the Department of Haematology, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2018

Results: There were 59 cases. Forty 40 (67.8%) were males and 19(32.2%)were females giving a male to female ratio of 4.4:1. Hodgkin Lymphoma(HL) accounted for 11(18.6%) of the cases while Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma(NHL) accounted for 48( 81.4%)of the cases , with the mean ages for HL and NHL patients being 32.09 +9.22 years and 40.88 + 12.21 years, respectively. The distribution of the different histologic subtypes of the malignancy were as follows: HL; Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant(7cases;63.6%), Nodular Sclerosis(2 cases;18.2%) and Lymphocyte Depleted(2 cases;18.2%). NHL; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma(23cases;47.9%),Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma(15 cases;31.3%),unspecified

(4 cases;8.3%), Follicular Lymphoma(2 cases;4.2%),Lymphoblastic Lymphoma(2 cases;4.2%), Mantle Cell Lymphoma(1 case;2.1%) and Adult T-Cell Lymphoma(1 case;2.1%). Fourteen 14 (29.2%) out of all the NHL patients had immunohistochemistry and only nine 9 of them were CD20 positive. Relapse rate among the cohort was 11.9% (7/59), while 15.3% (9/59) were still in remission. The cure rate was 5.1%, loss to follow up was 22.0% and 37.3% of patients died in the course of therapy either from advanced disease, non -compliance to treatment or late presentation. All the HL patients received ABVD (Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine and Dacarbazine) regimen alone. Majority of the NHL patients (91.7%, 44/48) received CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Oncovin and Prednisolone) regimen alone, while 8.3% (4/48) received Rituximab with CHOP (R-CHOP).

Conclusion: The clinicopathological profile, age and sex distribution of lymphoma in our study were comparable to those reported by other authors with nodular lymphocyte predominant being the most common HL histologic subtype and small lymphocytic lymphoma the predominant NHL histologic subtype in our environment. The general outcome was very poor with a high default rate and unsettling mortality figures.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Interaction between Phagocytic Cells with Antiphagocytic Properties of Cryptococcus neoformans: When Love and Hate Collide

Forman Erwin Siagian

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v12i130144

Global systemic fungal infection, including meningeal cryptococcosis caused by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus spp, continue to rise in number, especially among HIV infected individuals. Infection occur through inhalation of spore which is abundant in the environment. Initially this fungus stay in the lungs for a certain time without causing any symptoms and when the host’s cellular immune status is depleted, it can uses monocyte as a vehicle to take them to the brain, using a mechanism called Trojan Horse mechanism. Normal alveolar macrophage as the first line of innate immune system in the lungs are supposed to phagocytose, internalized and then destroy it inside an organelle named phagolysosome. But Cryptococcus spp seemed to have a built in antiphagocytic mechanism to avoid destruction and even can multiply therein. The interaction between this clever yeast and the host’s phagocytic cells determine the course of the disease.