Open Access Review Article

Anemia: Considerations for the Dental Practitioner

Georges Aoun, Pamela Aoun, Wissam Sharrouf, Abbass El-Outa

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v12i230145

Anemia is a condition of decreased red blood cell number or hemoglobin concentration, or of disturbance in their function, ultimately leading to decreased oxygen transport to tissues. Many factors and diseases may lead to anemia, with wide manifestations systemically as well as orally. Therefore, a sound understanding of this condition is essential for the dental practitioner, with emphasis on alerting signs, dental management and proper communication with patient’s physician.

Open Access Original Research Article

Which Strategy to Manage Severe Vaso-occlusive Crisis in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease in Countries with Limited Healthcare Capacities?

Lydie Ocini Ngolet, Chelsea Jayne Bango, Peggy Mawandza, Alexis Elira Dokekias

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 7-13
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v12i230146

We evaluated the treatment of morphine by intravenous patient controlled analgesia versus intermittent subcutaneous routes on patients with sickle cell disease developing severe vaso-occlusivecrisis.

Objectives: The primary objective was to compare intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA) versus intermittent subcutaneous injection of morphine (SC) on sickle cell patients developing severe vaso-occlusive crisis during the first 24 hours of admission. The secondary objective was to assess the side effects of morphine in both regimens.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial of 77 patients in the PCA and 81 in the SC group was conducted at the Sickle Cell Center of Brazzaville in the Republic of Congo. Participants aged from

15 to 45 years old with severe vaso-occlusive crisis were included in the study.

Results: Both regimens provided pain relief. However, a significant pain reduction was observed 30 minutes after the administration of morphine in the PCA group (P= 0.001). The mean scores in the PCA and SC regimens were respectively: 1.16±1.40 and 4.30±2.32. The total median dose of morphine administered in the PCA regimen was markedly lower: 24,6±4,16 mg versus 36.6±3.1 mg in the SC group (P=0.01). Morphine administered by PCA provided pain relief during 24 hours while intermittent severe pain was experienced in the SC group (P=0.014). Sedation score S2, S3 was significantly observed in the SC group (P< 0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Changes in Haematological Parameters of Sickle Cell Anaemia Subjects in Rivers and Bayelsa States

B. S. Mbeera, S. O. Akwuebu, A. C. U. Ezimah, N. C. Ibeh, E. M. Eze

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 14-23
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v12i230147

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in some haematological parameters in sickle cell anaemia subjects in Rivers State.

Study Design:  This study is a cross-sectional observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, and the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, between the months of February and August, 2020. 

Methodology: A total of four hundred and fifty (450) subjects with age range of 1-50 years were randomly selected. There are about 200 registered patients (adults and children alike) at the sickle cell clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, and the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, with an average of 4 new patients per month. The sample size was obtained using a prevalence of sickle cell anaemia of 2% and the sample size was calculated using Cochran sample size formula. Five milliliters (5ml) of venous blood sample was withdrawn from the peripheral vein in the upper limb of subjects using a standard venipuncture technique. The sample was rocked gently to mix and kept at room temperature and the haematological parameters were analyzed within 4 hours of samples collection. The haematological parameters: total white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Haematocrit, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red cell distribution width (RDW-CV), Platelet count (PLT), MPV, Neutrophils, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Eosinophils, and Basophils) were analyzed using Mindray BC-6800 auto Haematology analyzer system. Data management and statistical analyses were conducted using Statistical Analyses System SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA) and p values less than .05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: The results showed the mean comparison of haematological parameters in sickle cell anaemia and control subjects. The mean comparison of Haemoglobin F was significantly reduced statistically (p<.05) in vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) condition than steady state compared with the control group. There was increase trend of haematological parameters showing statistically significant difference across the subject conditions compared with the control. There were exceptions in few cases especially in lymphocytes which was not significant (p>.05) in the steady state and vaso-occlusive crisis compared with the control. Similarly, Neutrophils was not significant (p>.05) in the steady state and vaso-occlusive crisis compared with the control. Furthermore, Basophils was more significant (p<.05) in the steady state than in the vaso-occlusive crisis and control groups. Similarly, absolute eosinophil was less significant statistically (p<.05) in the steady state and vaso-occlusive crisis than in the control group.

Conclusion: This study has shown that there are changes in haemtological parameters between SCA subjects and control subjects and the VOC and steady state sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Antioxidant Enzymes, Haematological Values and Uric Acid Concentrations in Prostatic Disease Patients: An Investigative Study

Agbugba N. Agnes, Ohaeri O. Christopher, Ijioma N. Solomon, R. I. Uroko, Achi K. Ngozi, Nwaogazi N. Edith

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 31-38
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v12i230149

Aim: In this study, the haematology, serum antioxidant enzymes, and uric acid concentrations in prostatic disease patients attending the Nephrology Department of Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba were evaluated.

Methodology: A total of one hundred and ten (110) adult males (aged 40-80 years) comprising of sixty (60) prostatic disease patients and 50 normal subjects were recruited. The prostatic disease patients comprised of 30 prostatitis, 20 Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), and 10 prostate cancer patients. Haematological parameters, antioxidant enzyme levels, and uric acid concentration were determined on blood samples collected from the subjects between January 2017 and December 2019.

Results: Results obtained following analysis indicated a significant fall in red blood cell count, haematocrit levels and haemoglobin concentrations in all the prostatic disease patients when compared with control subjects (p<0.05) but no significant difference was observed between the values of these parameters in the three categories of patients studied (p>0.05). Leukocyte and lymphocyte counts in the patients also did not significantly differ from those of the control subjects (p>0.05) but platelets counts were significantly lower (p<0.05). Significant elevations were observed in monocytes and granulocytes counts of prostatitis and prostate cancer patients (p<0.05). Serum antioxidant enzymes activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were lower in the prostatic disease patients than in the control (p<0.05) with SOD and GPx levels being lowest in prostatitis and prostate cancer patients respectively while serum uric acid concentration was only higher than control in the prostatitis patients (p<0.05).

Conclusion: We, therefore, conclude that complications and deaths due to prostatic diseases may be due to the systemic effects of anaemia and fall in the body’s antioxidant defense line accompanying the conditions.

Open Access Short Research Article

Medical Students and the Level of Their Knowledge on Normal Flora: Results from an Electronic Questionnaire Conducted in a Private Medical School

Forman Erwin Siagian, Lusia Sri Sunarti

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v12i230148

Introduction: So far, study on medical student’s knowledge regarding human normal flora is not available in the internet. Normal flora is initially beneficial for their host, but what was once part of the normal flora can later become dangerous to their host, e.g become the agent of endogenous disease. The knowledge regarding normal flora is important for medical students, because it related with many aspects of their recent and future education and trainings, especially in the clinical phase. The aim of this simple cross sectional, questionnaire based study is to measure the level of knowledge regarding normal flora.

Study Design:  Cross sectional, electronic questionnaire-based survey                                                                                   

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia and conducted for 1 month (March 2021).

Methodology: The questionnaire is divided into two parts, the demographic section and the knowledge section that consist 20 question regarding normal flora. By using popular social media, WhatsApp™, survey conducted to all of our medical students.

Results: 628 students responded, and they were representing the class of 2014-2020, 190 male students and 438 females with mean age 20.16 years old (min. 16 and max 25). The result showed us that the level of knowledge is good and but the level of understanding regarding normal flora also gets better as they become senior students.

Conclusion: The level of knowledge of our students regarding normal flora is good, although it still needs to be improved continuously.