Open Access Review Article

Laboratory Methods for COVID-19 Diagnosis

Jonathan Nyebuchi, Emeji, Roseline, Konne Felix Eedee

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v13i130160

Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause disease in mammals and birds. Covid-19 infection occurs due to an RNA virus which is single-stranded, called SARS-CoV-2; this virus is similar to SARS-CoV. This review throws light on the available laboratory techniques used for testing coronavirus. Certain challenges are encountered during the development of a diagnostic test for a novel pathogen, which depends on sensitivity of the method, that is, the potential in detecting very low pathogen level for early laboratory diagnosis, produce little or no interference with other strains of the virus, and produce results rapidly. Since the time of incubation and clinical manifestation of the infection are relatively the same with SARS, the widespread and effect of COVID-19 globally serve as the basis why the development of quick and reliable laboratory methods are necessary. Samples that could be collected for covid-19 testing includes blood (especially for screening purpose), nasal and throat swab. Currently, the gold standard method for laboratory diagnosis of Covid-19 infection is RT-PCR, which serves as a confirmatory method for Covid-19 testing. EIA and SVN laboratory techniques are other techniques used in detecting the viral infection. In addition, Rapid Diagnostic Testing (RDT) are currently developed for point-of-care testing, and often used as a screening method of Covid-19 infections. Early detection of the virus remains the primary focus for the treatment and control of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Therefore, this review was aimed at the available laboratory methods used in the diagnosis for coronavirus infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Haemoglobin Variants on Glycemic Indices

Victor Tuanwii Ideede, Jonathan Nyebuchi, Albert Lesere Nwibani, Friday Ogidigba, Felix Eedee Konne, Fyneface Chikadibia Amadi

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 8-12
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v13i130161

Haemoglobin genotypes have been known to be linked with groups of diseases such as diabetes. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of haemoglobin variants on glycemic indices (fasting blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin) in subjects in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A total of 150subjects were enrolled for the study with AA group = 99 subjects and AS group = 51 subjects. 4mls of blood was collected into EDTA bottle for each subject and was assayed for Hb electrophoresis and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) using electrophoretic method and automated CLOVER A1c Analyser respectively. 2mls was collected into fluoride oxalate bottle for spectrophotometric analysis of fasting blood glucose (FBG). Results revealed that there were no significant differences in the FBG and HbA1C  mean  levels of the two studied groups (AA and AS). This study has shown that AA and AS blood genotypes may not have any impact on FBG and HbA1C glycemic parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of H. pylori with Serum Iron Levels and Some Risk Factors in Children Aged 1-12 Years Attending the Buea Regional Hospital

Akwo Mekalo Nya-Nweme, Jude Eteneneng Enoh, Benjamin Thumamo Pokam, Boris Tangi Fominyam, Jules Clement Assob

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v13i130162

Background and Objective: Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a very common human infection worldwide, colonizing the stomach of 50% of the world’s population. H. pylori play a major role in the development of iron deficiency, chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. H. pylori infection is more prevalent in developing countries and its acquisition is predominant in childhood. The aim was to determine the prevalence of HP and its association with serum iron levels in children aged 1-12 years attending the Buea Regional Hospital.

Methods: This was a hospital based cross sectional study involving 189 children. About 2 mL venous blood was collected and analyzed using immunoassay diaspot one step H. pylori Test Device and spectrophotometers to determine H. pylori immunoglobulin G and serum iron level respectively. Chi-square and Odd ratio test were used to determine the association at 95% confidence interval.

Results: A prevalence of 31.7% (60/189) and 47.1% (73/155) for H. pylori and low serum iron level was observed respectively. There was significantly associated between H. pylori and serum iron levels, with majority (60% (36/60)) of the HP positive participants having normal iron level 60% (36/60) (P=0.007 χ2=9.91). A significant association was also observed between HP and Anemia, with majority (41.67% (25/60)) of those positive for HP experienced mild anemia (P=0.009 χ2=11.55). H. pylori was more prevalent among males 38.04% (35/92) compared to 25.77% (25/97) for females.

Conclusion: This study recorded 31.7% and 47.1% prevalence of H. pylori and low serum iron level respectively, in the studied population. Male gender was most likely to be infected with H. pylori infection and children of age group 5 ≤ - < 9 years recorded the highest HP infection. There was significantly associated between H. pylori and serum iron levels, as well as H. pylori and type of anemia, although majority of H. pylori positive individuals had high serum iron level and mild anemia. This may imply that HP remains one of many risk factors or comorbidities of anemia and abnormal iron levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 Mutation Frequency in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Nesim Akin, Atakan Turgutkaya, Sare İlknur Yavaşoğlu, Esra Örenlili Yaylagül, Celal Ülger, Ali Zahit Bolaman, İrfan Yavaşoğlu

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2021/v13i130163

Introduction: FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase Class 3 (FLT3) mutations harbor poor prognosis, high relapse, and decreased overall survival in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). This mutation is also known to be demonstrated in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This study included 94 MDS-diagnosed patients and we tried to investigate FLT3 mutation frequency (as tyrosine kinase domain-TKD and internal tandem duplication-ITD).

Materials and Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism, and agarose-gel electrophoresis methods were used to analyze the mutation. The blood samples were collected in K3-EDTA tubes, and total DNA was isolated using genomic DNA isolation kits (GeneMark, Cat No: DP023P). For the detection of FLT3-ITD mutation, PCR was performed to amplify a 330- base pair fragment of exons 11 and 12 of FLT3 using FAM (Carboxyfluorescein)-labeled ITD-11F and HEX (Hexachloro-Fluorescein )-labeled  ITD-12R primers in a thermal cycler (Eppendorf). Similarly, to detect D835 mutation, a 115- bp region of exon 17 of the FLT3 gene region was amplified using primers.

Results: One patient was found FLT3-ITD positive (1.1%). The patient was 64-year-old and diagnosed with MDS-excess blast type 2 according to the World Health Organisation 2016 myeloid neoplasm classification. He transformed to AML within 19 months and subsequently died after 1 month. No patient with tyrosine kinase domain mutation was detected.

Conclusion: FLT3 mutation is considered a significant parameter to define prognosis in AML. The routine workup of FLT3 screening and the potential of targeting FLT3 inhibition for high-risk MDS may be taken into consideration in the future.